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SO 245 Perspectives on The Evolution of Technology Comparative Essay

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A Comparison of Three Perspectives on the Evolution of Technology
Jamie Johnson

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Jamie Johnson
AC2011019
SO245 Social Impact of Technology
Assignment 8
February 12, 2021
Technology is all around us. It has impacted oneself, others, and the world around us.
What exactly is technology? Technology is information about using the material resources of a
given society and culture to meet human needs and satisfy human desires. (Gerhard Lenski's
Theories of Sociocultural Evolution, Social Stratification & Technology, 2013) They viewed that
through technology, societies will evolve, change, and survive. The evolution of technology has
come a long way. There have been three major perspectives on the subject. Gerhard Lenski,
Leslie White, and Alvin Toffler have different views on the subject; however, they also have
similar perspectives. I will compare all three perspectives in this paper.
Gerhard Lenski focused on the social and cultural elements of society. He maintained an
evolutionary perspective of macrosociology. Macrosociology is the study of society, not just a
small segment of society. Gerhard proposed four levels of technological development, which are
as followed:
Level 1 is considered the hunter-gatherer level. Humans physically had to work for their
food.
Level 2 humans obtain part of the food supply from growing plants or horticulture.

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A Comparison of Three Perspectives on the Evolution of Technology Jamie Johnson Jamie Johnson AC2011019 SO245 Social Impact of Technology Assignment 8 February 12, 2021 Technology is all around us. It has impacted oneself, others, and the world around us. What exactly is technology? Technology is information about using the material resources of a given society and culture to meet human needs and satisfy human desires. (Gerhard Lenski's Theories of Sociocultural Evolution, Social Stratification & Technology, 2013) They viewed that through technology, societies will evolve, change, and survive. The evolution of technology has come a long way. There have been three major perspectives on the subject. Gerhard Lenski, Leslie White, and Alvin Toffler have different views on the subject; however, they also have similar perspectives. I will compare all three perspectives in this paper. Gerhard Lenski focused on the social and cultural elements of society. He maintained an evolutionary perspective of macrosociology. Macrosociology is the study of society, not just a small segment of society. Gerhard proposed four levels of technological development, which are as followed: Level 1 is considered the hunter-gatherer level. Humans physically had to work for their food. Level 2 humans obtain part of the food supply from growing plants or horticulture. Level 3 is when their livelihood is dependent upon the domestication of animals. An example is animal herders living off the resources ...
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