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Safety and Infection Control Pediatric Consideration Lesson 2

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Safety & Infection Control (Lesson 2): Pediatric Consideration
The nurse plays an important role in meeting the health needs of the pediatric client and their
families, from infancy and childhood through adolescence. Pediatric nursing care considerations
under this category include preventing the transmission of common pediatric communicable
diseases, use of restraints and safety and injury prevention for pediatric clients.
Pediatric Communicable Diseases
Varicella (chicken pox):
o Causative agent: Varicella Zoster virus
o Transmitted through contact, droplets, and skin lesions
o Symptoms: rash with papule, vesicle, and crust; may have a temperature and itching
o Treatment: decrease itching with diphenhydramine or antihistamines, airborne and
contact precautions, skin care
o Prevention: vaccine
Diphtheria
o Causative agent: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
o Transmitted through direct contact
o Symptoms: nasal discharge, sore throat, white/grey membranes, hoarseness, cough,
potential airway obstruction
o Treatment: antibiotics, bedrest, tracheostomy with airway obstruction, contact
precautions
o Prevention: vaccine
Mumps
o Causative agent: Paramyxoviruses or other viruses (e.g., Epstein-Barr, Parainfluenza
viruses) can cause mumps-like illness
o Transmitted through direct contact or droplets
o Symptoms: fever, headache, earache, parotic glands swelling, may cause orchitis
Orchitis (or-KIE-tis) is an inflammation of one or both testicles. Bacterial or viral
infections such as mumps can cause orchitis, or the cause can be unknown.
o Treatment: analgesics, antipyretics, intravenous fluids, maintain contact and droplet
precautions; apply ice packs for orchitis
o Prevention: vaccine
Pertussis (whooping cough)
o Causative agent: Bordetella pertussis
o Transmitted through direct contact
o Symptoms: dry, hacking cough, whooping cough, mucus, difficulty breathing
o Treatment: antibiotics, increase fluids, may require a ventilator or oxygenation,
maintain droplet precautions, suction airways
o Prevention: vaccine with booster
Poliomyelitis
o Causative agent: Enteroviruses
o Transmitted through feces, direct contact with contaminated person
o Symptoms: fever, sore throat, abdominal pain, severe pain with stiffness to neck, back
and legs; may cause paralysis of limbs
o Treatment: mechanical ventilation, maintain contact precautions, physical therapy
o Prevention: immunization

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Roseola (Exanthem subitem)
o Causative agent: Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)
o Transmitted through saliva
o Symptoms: high fever, bulging fontanels, rash, lymphadenopathy
o Treatment: antipyretics, may use seizure precautions
o Prevention: standard precautions
Rubella virus (German measles)
o Causative agent: Rubella virus
o Transmitted through nasal secretions
o Symptoms: fever, sore throat, cough; rash over face, limbs, and trunk
o Treatment antipyretics and analgesics
o Prevention: vaccine
Rubeola (measles)
o Causative agent: Rubeola virus
o Transmitted through direct contact with droplets
o Symptoms: fever, cough, Koplik spots (Kolpik spots are small, irregular red spots with a
minute, bluish-white center first seen on buccal mucosa opposite molars approximately
two days before rash appears.), rash, anorexia, abdominal pain
o Treatment: bedrest, antipyretics, antibiotics with high-risk children, vitamin A
o Prevention: vaccine
Scarlet Fever
o Causative agent: Group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcus
o Transmitted through direct contact and droplets
o Symptoms: high fever, enlarged and reddened tonsils, strawberry tongue, sandpaper
rash
o Treatment: antibiotic therapy, analgesics, antipruritic, maintain droplet precautions,
throat lozenges/rinses, encourage fluids
o Prevention: standard precautions
Restraint Use with Pediatric Clients
In pediatrics, restraints may be used for procedures, behavioral needs or to support medical healing.
The nurse should select the option which is least restrictive and follow restraint assessment protocols to
maintain the child's safety.
Mummy Restraints: Mummy restraints may be used on infants and small children as a
temporary restraint for a procedure. A papoose board or blanket may be used to secure the
child.
Arm/Leg Restraints: Disposable wrist or ankle restraints may be applied to control movements
in children. Sites should be assessed for skin irritation, circulation, and movement. Restraints
should be tied to the bed frame rather than siderails.
Elbow Restraints: Elbow restraints may be used to prevent movement of the hands to the face.
Often this type of restraint is used to prevent pulling of tubes, after a cleft palate/lip surgery or
to prevent IV removal.
Safety & Injury Prevention
Child health promotion includes safety and prevention of accidents or injuries to enable all children to
achieve their fullest health potential.
Aspiration

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Safety & Infection Control (Lesson 2): Pediatric Consideration The nurse plays an important role in meeting the health needs of the pediatric client and their families, from infancy and childhood through adolescence. Pediatric nursing care considerations under this category include preventing the transmission of common pediatric communicable diseases, use of restraints and safety and injury prevention for pediatric clients. Pediatric Communicable Diseases • • • • • Varicella (chicken pox): o Causative agent: Varicella Zoster virus o Transmitted through contact, droplets, and skin lesions o Symptoms: rash with papule, vesicle, and crust; may have a temperature and itching o Treatment: decrease itching with diphenhydramine or antihistamines, airborne and contact precautions, skin care o Prevention: vaccine Diphtheria o Causative agent: Corynebacterium diphtheriae o Transmitted through direct contact o Symptoms: nasal discharge, sore throat, white/grey membranes, hoarseness, cough, potential airway obstruction o Treatment: antibiotics, bedrest, tracheostomy with airway obstruction, contact precautions o Prevention: vaccine Mumps o Causative agent: Paramyxoviruses or oth ...
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