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Gas Exchange Process Through Which Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide Essay

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Gas exchange is the process through which oxygen and carbon dioxide moves freely between the
lungs and the bloodstream. This is the major role of the respiratory system and it is important to
ensure a constant supply of oxygen to tissues, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide to prevent
accumulation. This exchange of gases occurs by diffusion.
Lung fluid balance is an important factor in gas exchange. Fluid balance is governed by ion
transport across the alveolar epithelium, which lines more than 99% of the internal surface area
of the lung and is composed of alveolar type I and type II cells. (UCSF). Under normal
circumstances, filtered fluid is removed by an efficient lymphatic pump. Edema occurs when
there is an increased influx of fluid at a much higher pace than effective lymphatic removal of
the fluid. This reduces the pressure gradient and there is a flooding of alveolar air spaces and a
subsequent reduction in effective gas exchange.
Many studies have shown that daily fluid balance is a predictor of outcome in critically ill
patients. A positive fluid balance might be associated with increased extravascular lung water
and consequently interfere with gas exchange and oxygenation, and consequently increasing the
alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. (NCBI)
REFERENCES
Effect of Fluid Balance on Alveolar-Arterial Oxygen Gradient in Mechanically Ventilated
Patients by Masoud Aliyali, Ali Sharifpour, Abdolrasol Tavakoli cited from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153143/citedby/
Role of the alveolar epithelium in lung fluid balance; Meshell Johnson, MD | Biomedical
Sciences Graduate Program, cited from
https://bms.ucsf.edu/people/meshell-johnson-md

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Gas exchange is the process through which oxygen and carbon dioxide moves freely between the lungs and the bloodstream. This is the major role of the respiratory system and it is important to ensure a constant supply of oxygen to tissues, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide to prevent accumulat ...
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