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Grammar Use of Quotations Keys and Ways Lecture

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PWR 1CK
Investigating the News
Handout on Integrating Sources through Quotation:
Joseph Bizup describes the practice of using quotations in terms of “degrees of quotation.” This is a
useful concept because it helps us see that the different ways of quoting sources serve different
rhetorical functions. It also helps us see that some strategies for quotation are more interruptive and
others are more integrative. At the end of this handout I have organized example quotations from
the most to the least interruptive. I have also named each strategy to help you see the rhetorical
possibilities.
Key issues with using quotations as evidence:
1. Quotes tend to interrupt your own prose; you should have a good reason for using a quote
rather than summary or paraphrase. Here are a few possible reasons: (a) to include powerful
language that is not your own, (b) to enlist support of an authority to bolster your claim, (c)
to enable close analysis of a passage, (d) to clarify and develop disagreement.
2. Quotes require a signal that the quote is coming and an assertion that develops the
relationship between the quote and your own argument.
3. Quotes are not self-explanatory. In addition, to introducing quotes it is often necessary to
follow up on and develop the impact of the quote.
Quotations are a powerful form of evidence, but quotes are also an interruption. Use quotes
thoughtfully and make certain that you carefully integrate the quotations into your own prose.
Four ways to integrate quotations into your writing (Note: there are many other variations):
1. Use a colon when you introduce a quote with a full sentence (you might also use a period).
2. Use a comma after the introductory phrase when you introduce a quote with an incomplete
sentence.
3. Use the conjunction that when you blend the quotation into your own sentence. Do not
use any punctuation with that.
4. Embed short phrases or passages from the text in your own writing. Here you use short
quotes are placed in your own sentence in the place of a paraphrase, so no special
punctuation is needed.
Colon introducing a block quote:
You know what this looks like. It should be used rarely because it completely stops the flow of
your paper and essentially hands a ‘chunk’ of your paper over to the source. If you do decide to
use a block quote (any quotation introduced by a colon that runs more than four lines), then you
will want to make certain that you dwell, rhetorically on the quote for some time. You need to

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make certain that there is a good reason that we need to spend so much time with the source
text. Here is an example.
Early in October, Senator Dianne Feinstein, the chair of the Senate intelligence committee,
wrote in USA Today: “The call-records program is not surveillance. It does not collect the
content of any communication, nor do the records include names or locations. The NSA only
collects the type of information found on a telephone bill: phone numbers of calls placed and
received, the time of the calls and duration.
From “NSA Files Decoded” in the Guardian
Colon introducing a quote:
Lippmann likened the average American—or “outsider,” as he tellingly named him—to a “deaf
spectator in the back row” at a sporting event: “He does not know what is happening, why it is
happening, what ought to happen,” and “he lives in a world which he cannot see, does not
understand and is unable to direct.”
From Eric Alterman, “Out of Print” in the New Yorker
Comma after introductory phrase used to introduce quote: (see also interrupted structure)
The over-all effect may appear chaotic and confusing, but, Lerer argues, “this new way of
thinking about, and presenting, the news, is transforming news as much as CNN did thirty years
ago.”From Eric Alterman, “Out of Print” in the New Yorker
But for the page operators, the question is irrelevant to the task at hand. Facebook’s primacy is a
foregone conclusion, and the question of Facebook’s relationship to political discourse is absurd
they’re one and the same. As Rafael Rivero put it to me, “Facebook is where it’s all
happening.”
From John Herrman, “Inside Facebook’s…” in the New York Times
“That” used to introduce quote: (“incorporated structure”)
In a description that may strike a familiar chord with anyone who watches cable news or listens
to talk radio today, Lippmann assumed a public that “is slow to be aroused and quickly diverted .
. . and is interested only when events have been melodramatized as a conflict.”
From Eric Alterman, “Out of Print” in the New Yorker
Comma after introductory phrase used to introduce partial quote and partial quote introduced with
“that”:
On the Huffington Post, Peretti explains, news is not something handed down from above but
“a shared enterprise between its producer and its consumer.” Echoing Murdoch, he says that the
Internet offers editors “immediate information” about which stories interest readers, provoke
comments, are shared with friends, and generate the greatest number of Web searches.
From Eric Alterman, “Out of Print” in the New Yorker
Embedded Quotes:
Meanwhile, public trust in newspapers has been slipping at least as quickly as the bottom line. A
recent study published by Sacred Heart University found that fewer than twenty per cent of
Americans said they could believe “all or most” media reporting, a figure that has fallen from
more than twenty-seven per cent just five years ago.
From Eric Alterman, “Out of Print” in the New Yorker

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PWR 1CK Investigating the News Handout on Integrating Sources through Quotation: Joseph Bizup describes the practice of using quotations in terms of “degrees of quotation.” This is a useful concept because it helps us see that the different ways of quoting sources serve different rhetorical functions. It also helps us see that some strategies for quotation are more interruptive and others are more integrative. At the end of this handout I have organized example quotations from the most to the least interruptive. I have also named each strategy to help you see the rhetorical possibilities. Key issues with using quotations as evidence: 1. Quotes tend to interrupt your own prose; you should have a good reason for using a quote rather than summary or paraphrase. Here are a few possible reasons: (a) to include powerful language that is not your own, (b) to enlist support of an authority to bolster your claim, (c) to enable close analysis of a passage, (d) to clarify and develop disagreement. 2. Quotes require a signal that the quote is coming and an assertion that develops the relationship between the quote and your own argument. 3. Quotes are not self-explanatory. In addition, to introducing quotes it is often necessary to follow up on and develop the impact of the quote. Quotations are a powerful form of evidence, but quotes are also an interruption. Use quotes thoughtfully and make certain that you carefully integrate the quotations into your own prose. Four ways to integr ...
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