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Kinetic Energy and Intermolecular Forces Theory of Gases Concepts

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Phase changes in terms of kinetic energy and intermolecular forces
Melting: turning a solid into a liquid; kinetic energy increases; particles move so fast attractive
forces cannot hold them together
Freezing: turning a liquid into a solid; kinetic energy decreases; particles move slower until the
attractive forces are able to hold them together
Boiling: turns a liquid into a gas; kinetic energy increases; particles move even faster
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
The particles of gas are in constant motion
Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles
Gases experience elastic collisions
there are no forces of attraction/repulsion between gas particles
KE is directly proportional to temperature
Gas calculations and ideal gas constants
PV = nRT
Standard temp. and pressure = 1 mol/22.4 L or 22.4 L/1 mol in
Stoichiometry calculations
Grams A * 1 / molar mass A = moles A * moles B / moles A = moles B * molar mass B = grams B
Standard temp. and pressure = 1/22.4 L or 22.4 L/1 mol
In stoichiometry (when the problem says “at the same temperature and pressure”):
Liters of A * 1 mol / 22.4 L = moles A * moles B/moles A = moles B * molar mass B =
grams of B
Or u can use ideal gas law: standard temp = 273.15 K; standard pressure = 1.0 atm, R = .0821
Moles to grams = moles * molar mass
Effusion and diffusion
Rate of effusion A / rate of effusion B = sqrt(molar mass B) / sqrt (molar mass A)
Gas particles w less mass have higher velocity
Compare and contrast mixtures and solutions
Mixtures can be separated while solutions cannot; mixtures retain their individual elements
while compounds do not; the substances in mixtures retain their chemical and physical
properties while the solutions become totally new; mixtures have no definite mixing ratio
Separate mixtures by distillation, filtration, chromatography, or evaporation
Determine the concentration based on collected data
The solvent = more, solute = less
M = moles of solution/volume in liters
Percent by mass
M = mass of solute / total mass of solute * 100
M = mass of solute / mass of solute + mass of solvent * 100
Determine factors that affect solubility
The forces of attraction between the solute and solvent
Temperature: the higher the temperature, the faster the solvent will dissolve in the solute

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• Phase changes in terms of kinetic energy and intermolecular forces Melting: turning a solid into a liquid; kinetic energy increases; particles move so fast attractive forces cannot hold them together Freezing: turning a liquid into a solid; kinetic energy decreases; particles move slower until the attractive forces are able to hold them together Boiling: turns a liquid into a gas; kinetic energy increases; particles move even faster • Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The particles of gas are in constant motion Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles Gases experience elastic col ...
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