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Angina Pectoris Symptoms and Affections Presentation

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ANGINA PECTORIS BY ABIODUN FAYOKEMI PATRICIA OUTLINE • • • • • • • • INTRODUCTION AETIOLOGY PATHOGENESIS FORMS CLINICAL FEATURES RISK FACTORS DIAGNOSIS MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION • Angina pectoris is a type of chest pain characterized by paroxsymal and usually recurrent attacks of substernal or precordial chest discomfort. • It is caused by transient (15secs.-15mins)myocardial ischaemia that is insufficient to induce myocyte necrosis. • The pain is often described as a squeezing, pressure, heaviness or tightness of the chest. • Typically, the pain is central or retrosternal and may radiate to the left arm and to the jaws. • Angina may range from a mild pain to a more severe pain that provokes sweating and fear. There maybe associated breathlessness. • Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease. AETIOLOGY • Angina is caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscles. Maybe due to occlusion from: • Artherosclerotic plaques • Coronary emboli • And other causes due to: • Vascular spasms • Myocardial vessel inflammation(vasculitis) PATHOGENESIS • As a result of insufficient coronary perfusion relative to myocardial infarction, there is an ischaemia induced release of substances such as bradykinins, adenosine and other molecules that stimulate sympathetic and vagal afferent nerves. The pain itself is a consequence of the release of these substances. FORMS • There are three overlapping patterns of angina pectoris: • Stable or ...
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