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Diarrhoea Presentation

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DIARRHOEA PRESENTED BY AGBEDE DAMILOLA JOHNSON OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • Introduction/Definition Epidemiology Clinical types Causes Pathogenesis Transmission Manifestation Investigations Management Prevention and control INTRODUCTION/DEFINITION • Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of > 200 g of stool daily, commonly with increased frequency and loose or watery stools. • Diarrhea reflects increased water content of the stool, whether due to impaired water absorption and/or active water secretion by the bowel. • In severe infectious diarrhea, the number of stools may reach 20 or more per day, with defecation occurring every 20 or 30 minutes. In this situation, the total daily volume of stool may exceed two liters, with resultant volume depletion and hypokalemia. EPIDEMIOLOGY • Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old, and is responsible for killing around 760 000 children every year • It is a leading cause of child mortality and morbidity in the world, and mostly results from contaminated food and water sources. • Worldwide, 780 million individuals lack access to improved drinking-water and 2.5 billion lack improved sanitation. Diarrhoea due to infection is widespread throughout the developing countries. Lack of potable water as a risk factor for diarrheal diseases Clinical types • Three types: (i) Acute watery diarrhoea – lasts less than 14 days (ii) Acute bloody diarrhoea – als ...
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