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Investigations in respiratory diseases Presentation

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INVESTIGATIONS IN RESPIRATORY DISEASES DR. S.S.S. OWOLADE DEPT. OF MEDICINE UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES LA JE ROAD ONDO OUTLINE Chest imaging Pulmonary function test Hematological testing Biochemistry Sputum analysis Exercise testing Pleural fluid analysis Pleural biopsy Bronchoscopy Allergen Skin testing Imaging Chest Xray useful in disease such as Tuberculosis, pneumonia. Lung cancer etc ❑ NB: Previous images are always very useful ❑ Criterial for an appropriate chest xray ❑ The view AP, PA, lateral ❑ Penetration Under or over penetrated ❑ Rotation Important ◦ Shape and bony structure of the chest wall ◦ Centrality of the trachea ◦ Elevation/flatness of the diaphragm ◦ Shape, size and position of the heart ◦ Shape and size of the hilar shadows ◦ Shape and size of any lung abnormalities ◦ Vascular shadowing Chest xray abnormalities Consolidation no shift in mediastinum e.g pneumonia Lung Collapse Collapse Large shifts mediastinum to the ipsilateral side Causes of collapse ◦ Enlarged tracheobronchial lymph ◦ Inhaled foreign bodies ◦ Bronchial casts or plugs ◦ Retained secretions Pleural effusion Cause of effusion Pneumonia Tuberculosis Lung cancer Pulmonary embolism Rheumatoid arthritis Connective tissue diseases Heart failure Meig syndrome Hypothyroidism Cavity Cavitatory lung lesion Tuberculosis Klebsiella pneumonia Lung abscess Sarcoidosis Malignancy Abscess cavity Chest CT scan Superior to CXR To assess equivoc ...
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