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Malaria Is a Protozoan Disease Caused by Plasmodium Species Essay

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MALARIA
INTRODUCTION
Malaria is a protozoan disease caused by Plasmodium Species. The species of
Plasmodium that cause disease in human include; Plasmodium falciparum,
Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and more recently
Plasmodium Knowlesi.
Plasmodium is transmitted to a susceptible human host following a bite from a
female anopheles mosquito. The breeding of the female anopheles mosquito is
dependent on favourable environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall and
humidity.
Other routes of transmission of malaria include transplacentally (Congenital
malaria), through blood transfusion, perinatally through the mingling of mother’s
and baby’s blood and through needle prick injuries
EPIDEMIOLOGY
Malaria is endemic in the tropical and subtropical countries of the world, and in
area up to 64
0
N and 32
0
S of the equator.
As at 2017 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 50% of the
world population are at the risk of Malaria. Malaria transmission occurs in 87
countries in Africa, Central and South America, Asia and the Oceania. 5 Countries
(Nigeria, Democratic republic of Congo, Mozambique, India and Uganda)
accounted for about 50% of the cases of malaria worldwide. In 2017, malaria cases
recorded in 87 countries were 219 million, out of which 92%were from Africa. In
2017, Malaria was responsible for 435,000 deaths out of which 61% were children
age below 5years. Africa records about 93% of the death. Some people are at
higher risk of contracting malaria and develop the severe form of malaria. The
group includes infants, pregnant women and patients with HIV/AIDS and non-
immune migrants.
The Incubation period for Plasmodium malariae is 8-37days. Incubation period of
Plasmodium falciparum is 9-14days. P. falciparum is the most widely spread
species in Africa (99.7%) and causes the most severe form of the disease
worldwide.
P. Ovale and P.vivax are responsible for relapse.

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Endemicity of malaria may be classified based on:
1) Spleen and parasite rates into:
Hypoendemicity
Mesoendemicity
Hyperendemicity
Holoendemicity
2. Transmission rates
- High (stable) transmission
- Low (unstable) transmission
LIFE CYCLE
The life cycle consist of an Asexual (Schizogony) and the Sexual cycle. The
Asexual cycle takes place in the human host and consist of the pre-erythrocytic
(Liver) and the Erythrocytic (Blood) stages.
Asexual cycle begins with the sporozoites being introduced into the human host
following a blood meal.
The Sexual cycle takes place in the mosquito and begin with the male and female
gametocytes being introduced into the mosquito following a blood meal.
CLINICAL FEATURES
Malaria may present as either acute uncomplicated malaria or as complicated
(severe) malaria
Acute Uncomplicated Malaria
1. Fever: most common symptom but not invariable and may show periodicity
2. Headache
3. Vomiting
4. Convulsion
5. Jaundice
6. Palor
7. Pain
8. Diarrhoea
9 Cough

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MALARIA INTRODUCTION Malaria is a protozoan disease caused by Plasmodium Species. The species of Plasmodium that cause disease in human include; Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and more recently Plasmodium Knowlesi. Plasmodium is transmitted to a susceptible human host following a bite from a female anopheles mosquito. The breeding of the female anopheles mosquito is dependent on favourable environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall and humidity. Other routes of transmission of malaria include transplacentally (Congenital malaria), through blood transfusion, perinatally through the mingling of mother’s and baby’s blood and through needle prick injuries EPIDEMIOLOGY Malaria is endemic in the tropical and subtropical countries of the world, and in area up to 640N and 320 S of the equator. As at 2017 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 50% of the world population are at the risk of Malaria. Malaria transmission occurs in 87 countries in Africa, Central and South America, Asia and the Oceania. 5 Countries (Nigeria, Democratic republic of Congo, Mozambique, India and Uganda) accounted for about 50% of the c ...
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