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Pulmonary Tuberculosis Special Considerations Presentation

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PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS DR OLASEINDE BELLO DEPT OF PAEDIATRICS UNIMED, ONDO ONDO STATE Outline ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Introduction Epidemiology Pathogenesis/ Pathophysiology Clinical features Management Special considerations Prevention Conclusion Introduction ◼ Chronic infectious and granulomatous disease ◼ May affect any part of the body but more often the respiratory tract ◼ It is a vaccine preventable disease Epidemiology ◼ About 1/3 of the World population is infected. ◼ However, about 9 million people developed the disease with 1.5 million deaths (2013) ◼ Sub-Sahara Africa bears the major brunt of the estimated figures. Epidemiology ◼ There has been a resurgence of TB cases worldwide since 1980, which coincides with the advent of HIV. ◼ There were about 590,000 new cases of TB in Nigeria (2013) Risk factors to developing TB ◼ Age: years Under-fives and Adolescents > 14 ◼ Sex : More in females especially ◼ Overcrowding ◼ Malnutrition ◼ Intercurrent infections: Measles, Pertusis Risk factors ◼ Famine ◼ Wars ◼ Immunosuppression ◼ Low socioeconomic status Aetiology ◼ Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. ◼ Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most important of the organisms within the complex. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. ◼ - - Other organisms within the complex include: M. bovis M. africanus M. microti M. canetti M. caprae and M. pinnipedi Pathogenesis ◼ M ...
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