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Cell Structure Cytoplasm and Chromosomes Study Notes

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Microbiology

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Structure
Cells are the smallest units of living things. They are too small to be seen
with the naked eye, so we need to use microscopes to see their
structures.
Cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus. Plant cells also
have a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a
large vacuole containing cell sap.
The cell membrane is partially permeable, and it controls what enters
and leaves the cell.
The cytoplasm is a jelly-like solution of many different substances in
water. It is the site of many different metabolic reactions.
The nucleus contains the chromosomes, which are made of DNA. This is
the genetic informationn and it controls the activities of the cell.
The cell wall of a plant cell is made of criss-crossing fibres of cellulose. It
is fully permeable. It helps to support the cell and prevents the cell
bursting if it absorbs a lot of water.
The vacuole of a plant cell contains cell sap, which is a solution
of sugars and other substances in water.
Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs
sunlight for photosynthesis. There may be starch grains inside the
chloroplasts, which are the form in which plants store the food that they
make in photosynthesis.

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Structure • Cells are the smallest units of living things. They are too small to be seen with the naked eye, so we need to use microscopes to see their structures. • Cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus. Plant cells also have a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a large vacuole containing cell sap. • The cell membrane is partially permeable, and it controls what enters and leaves the cell. • The cytoplasm is a jelly-like solution of many different substances in water. It is the site of many different metabolic reactions. • The nucleus contains the chr ...
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