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Risk of Violent Crime Victimization Analysis

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The article Risk of Violent Crime Victimization During Daily Activities (Lemieux,
2012) focuses on the study of What people do, where they do it and how long
they do it (Lemieux, 2012, P 635). The study discusses Lifestyle Theory and its
relationship to risky choice and Routine Activity Approach and the interpretation
of routine daily movements as they impact the potentiality of victimization
regarding violent crime (Lemieux, 2012, P 635). Routine activities provide
offenders with easy targets and this variable must be part of any study analyzing
violent crime and a time and space variable (Felson, 1987). Rational Choice
Theory and the decision to be involved in risky activities that involve a spatial
element can impact crime statistics (Ontario Ministry). Qualifying numerical data
was extracted from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) as the
numerator and American Time Use Survey (ATUS) as the denominator in the data
gathering process (Lemieux, 2012, P 635). Accommodation was made for
independent variables such as frequenting dangerous areas or hot spots and
dependent variables such as likelihood of experiencing violent crime as a result
(Lemieux, 2012, P 636). Situation Crime Prevention Theory (NIJ) posits that crime
can be prevented by reducing the opportunity for crime, i.e., by avoidance of hot
spots and the added factor of certain time-based issues. This brief analysis of
the purpose of the study serves to illuminate the development of the specific
research questions and methodology.
There exists long standing disagreement in how to quantify the denominator in the
study represented by population, opportunity, epidemiology and demographics
(Lemieux, 2012, P 637). The uncritical acceptance of simple residential
population can result in inaccurate and misleading data (Lemieux, 2012, P 637).
Variables such as large tourist influx during specific time periods provide a
variable that is difficult to factor in to numerical data whereas using only
indigenous populations in the city is equally fraught with inaccurate data
probability (Lemieux, 2012, P 637). To take these inequities into consideration,
Lemieux, et al., utilizes a concept known as the person-hour.
The person-houracts as a direct measure of time, related to sleep and activity,
and allows for person-hour data to be correlated with victimization data and
related to the where and how long aspects of the study (Lemieux, 2012, P 638).
Epidemiology as related to medical study relates to the incidence and distribution
of disease, is akin to violent crime study in that exposure to certain negative
areas can dramatically alter the possibility of experiencing a violent criminal act
(Lemieux, 2012, P 638). As in the medical field, some exposures are much more
dangerous than others in contracting illness or physical damage due to violent
crime. This transfers well to criminology. Some locations are more dangerous
than others and can result in a much higher incidence of criminal violence over
shorter time periods than other less dangerous locations. This is a complicated
and inter-related group of variables to be considered in the study and the

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accuracy of the study is critically dependent upon the accuracy of the data
concerning incidents as related to time, location and victimization counts. The one
qualifier that remains elusive is the tourist factor and its relationship to crime. This
is a moving population that is difficult to accurately quantify. The total sample size
is so large that this may not have a major effect on results.
Methodology was chosen as a factor of the study encompassing the United States
as a whole (Lemieux, 2012, P 639). This is an extremely broad-based undertaking
and the only way to access the necessary data was through the use of national-
level data sources (Lemieux, 2012, P 639). The study outlined nine broad-based
daily activities to include six destination and three transit activities (Lemieux,
2012, P 639).
1. Sleeping 2. Other activities at home 3. Working 4. Attending school 5.
Shopping or errands 6. Leisure activity away from home 7. Going to or from
school 8. Going to or from work 9. Going to and from some other place.
(Lemieux, 2012, P 639).
The demographic tables differentiate between percent male, percent white and
percent aged 15-29 (Lemieux, 2012, P 639) and present data from National Crime
Victimization Survey (NCVS) and American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Bureau of
Justice Statistics data was utilized in the studys violent crime numerical data.
Violent crimes were separated into five broad categories to provide a more robust
data findings (Lemieux, 2012, P 641) and shown in table 6 (Lemieux, 2012, P
648).
Detailed analysis of NCVS and ATUS data was compiled. Table 2 outlines the
incidence rate taken from the NCVS and ATUS as “Example of How Activity-
Specific Time-Adjusted Violence Rates Were Calculated: The Risk of
Violence While Shopping, United States, 2003 (Lemieux, 2012, P 642).
The methodology helped the researchers answer the research questions by
creating complicated and detailed value ratios with significant variables. Time
adjusted rates for violence in Chart 3 (Lemieux, 2012, P 644) delineates the most
dangerous activities. Figure 1(Lemieux, 2012, P 645) analysis suggests that when
time adjustment is included in the analysis, the most dangerous activity, time
related, is to and from school. Conversely, other activities at home are the most
dangerous when ignoring time issues. The data shows a strong inter-relationship
with risk and time specificity. The acknowledgement of risk as basically a time
specific event becomes illuminated.
Time adjusted violence rates are presented in table 4 (Lemieux, 2012, P 646) as
to male, female, white, non-white and as a compilation of all Americans. Table 5
(Lemieux, 2012, P 647), presents a compilation of data by age, 15-29 and 30 and
over and provides a ratio for evaluation of different risk rates for age.

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The article “Risk of Violent Crime Victimization During Daily Activities” (Lemieux, 2012) focuses on the study of “What people do, where they do it and how long they do it” (Lemieux, 2012, P 635). The study discusses Lifestyle Theory and its relationship to risky choice and Routine Activity Approach and the interpretation of routine daily movements as they impact the potentiality of victimization regarding violent crime (Lemieux, 2012, P 635). Routine activities provide offenders with easy targets and this variable must be part of any study analyzing violent crime and a time and space variable (Felson, 1987). Rational Choice Theory and the decision to be involved in risky activities that involve a spatial element can impact crime statistics (Ontario Ministry). Qualifying numerical data was extracted from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) as the numerator and American Time Use Survey (ATUS) as the denominator in the data gathering process (Lemieux, 2012, P 635). Accommodation was made for independent variables such as frequenting dangerous areas or “hot spots” and dependent variables such as likelihood of experiencing violent crime as a result (Lemieux, 2012, P 636). Situation Crime Prevention Theory (NIJ) posits that crime can be prevented by reducing the opportunity for crime, i.e., by avoidance of “hot spots” and the added factor of certain time-based issues. This brief analysis of the purpose of the study serves to illuminate the development of ...
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