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Criminological Theory Incorporate Integrative Concepts Analysis

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ANALYSES OF CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY PAST AND PRESENT:
LOOKING FORWARD TO INCORPORATE INTEGRATIVE CONCEPTS
When one makes the decision to enter into a program of higher learning, in any field,
the goal is to develop a foundational basis in the subject matter. All learning begins with
understanding what has come before, the study of respected individuals work
concerning the subject matter, the impact of the material on conditions, the empirical
evidence of same and the inter-relationships between events and outcomes. The
acquisition of both knowledge and understanding must supersede points of view and
pre-conceived notions in favor of fact. In the absence of clear facts, then the student
must strive to understand the potential causality of incidents and the relationship they
hold to reality. Only then can a student, armed with knowledge of the past, extrapolate
potential theories and develop new approaches to explaining realities. This is as true of
science based astro-physics as it is to psychologically based criminology. Once a strong
base of understanding of the topic at hand is acquired, then, and only then, can the
student develop prescient or visionary/predictive skills that can add to the existing base
of subject knowledge and be tested by peers and followers alike to either prove or
disprove theory. It is this we students strive for, to build upon the science of
understanding cause and effect and have the ability to suggest theories that may help
explain causes of actions and to enter into predictive policy that can result in significant
change. So, it is with criminology.
The key current threat to the world today is terrorism. The word engenders fear as to
the unknown potentiality of terror events and what drives terrorists to target the
innocent. Criminological theory is most often applied or discussed in relation to
domestic criminality and the underlying causes of criminal behavior. It is not often that
criminological theory is discussed as it may relate to international terrorism and the
identification of causation and the relationship it may define in counter-terrorism efforts.
When looking at the “Psychology of Terrorism” (Borum, 2004) and seek to connect
criminological theory to the underlying causation of the creation of a terrorist, care must
be taken to eliminate or adjust the domestic definitions of criminological theory and view
them through a lens of varied international mores and customs. What may be
acknowledged as deviant behavior in America may not necessarily be so in diverse
cultures. What can be focused on are the basic tenets of the theories. In cultures where
women are not treated equal, it must be factored in to criminological theory to
understand motivations.
Although open to discussion, certain causalities may be removed from analyzing how
criminological theory can assist in counter-terrorism activity. Mental illness, narcissism,
hostility toward parents may be given less weight while perceived injustice, humiliation,

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poverty and strict absolute belief systems demanding revenge can be heavily weighted
in the discussion (Borum, 2004; P3). While they may exist on an individual basis, these
factors cannot be predictive in a broad sense of causing terrorism. There is also a broad
cross section of groups responsible for terrorism and they may have different basic
systems that have created the terrorist mentality.
Violence is “caused” by a complex interaction of biological, social/contextual, cognitive,
and emotional factors that occur over time.” (Borum, 2004; P10). Social Learning
Theory is valuable in understanding the “making of a terrorist”. Social Learning Theory
posits that socialization of an individual, by specific people or groups, can account for
their acceptance of a certain reality. Terrorist groups are particularly adept at identifying
young individuals susceptible to their ideology and radicalizing them. The results are
rewards for behavior in-line with the ideology and punishment for behavior adverse to
the ideology. (Borum, 2004; P13). Focused aggression is the goal and a learned activity
and terrorist groups focus that aggression on the selected targets. The assistance to
counter-terrorism efforts can come through the clandestine services identifying the
deficiencies which impact young individuals, from known terrorist strongholds, to be
susceptible to socialization events leading to terrorism. Once a clear understanding has
been realized, work with the indigenous population to find ways to mitigate the
underlying deficiencies.
Social Process Theory views criminality as a function of interactions with organizations,
institutions and societal processes (Seigel, 2000). This theory obviously has a strong
relation to the many groups that seek to radicalize individuals. The terrorist
organizations are so skilled at this that they can socialize/radicalize individuals over the
internet. Social Process Theory discusses reinforcing activity that can not only bring an
individual into a terror group, it is used to maintain their participation in activities of
organizational focus.
Strain Theory can be consulted to gain a greater understanding of factors that can push
an individual to join, and remain, a disciple of a terrorist group (Kayaoglu, 2008). Three
types of strain can be related to this understanding. “1. Failure to achieve positively
valued goals 2. Presentation of negative stimuli 3. Removal of positive stimuli
(Kayaoglu, 2008; P 42). These three fomenting characteristics and their investigation in
minute detail as to their use by terror groups, could lead to anti-terrorism policies that
would dilute or eliminate them. Major differences between aspirations and expectations,
expectations and actual achievements and the disconnect between fair results and
actual results are paraphrased (Kayaoglu, 2008; P 43) cause similar strains that are
experienced in America; namely, unequal income, which causes a feeling of
worthlessness, the loss of a loved one or love relationship, the removal of positivity and
homelessness and adverse parental relationships, the reality of negativity (Kayaoglu,
2008; P 43-45). These are much simplified strata of strain theory that can result in a
negative world view and cumulative effect can prepare an individual for recruitment into

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ANALYSES OF CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY PAST AND PRESENT: LOOKING FORWARD TO INCORPORATE INTEGRATIVE CONCEPTS When one makes the decision to enter into a program of higher learning, in any field, the goal is to develop a foundational basis in the subject matter. All learning begins with understanding what has come before, the study of respected individuals work concerning the subject matter, the impact of the material on conditions, the empirical evidence of same and the inter-relationships between events and outcomes. The acquisition of both knowledge and understanding must supersede points of view and pre-conceived notions in favor of fact. In the absence of clear facts, then the student must strive to understand the potential causality of incidents and the relationship they hold to reality. Only then can a student, armed with knowledge of the past, extrapolate potential theories and develop new approaches to explaining realities. This is as true of science based astro-physics as it is to psychologically based criminology. Once a strong base of understanding of the topic at hand is acquired, then, and only then, can the student develop prescient or visionary/predictive skills that can add to the existing base of subject knowledge and be tested by peers and followers alike to either prove or disprove theory. It is this we students strive for, to build upon the science of understanding cause and effect and have the ability to suggest theories that may help explain causes of actions ...
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I was having a hard time with this subject, and this was a great help.

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