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Perspectives on Motivation Chapter Notes

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Perspectives on Motivation Instincts - Def: Inborn, inflexible, goal-directed behaviors that are characteristic or an entire species - Instinct theory, popular in the early 20th century, was ultimately disputed because - Most important human behavior is learned - Human behavior is rarely rigid, inflexible, unchanging, and common to all, as is the case with instincts - Ascribing every conceivable human behavior to a corresponding instinct explains nothing - Drive Reduction Theory: - Need→ Requirement of material (e.g. food, water) essential for survival - Drive→ State of arousal that motivates behavior - Drive-Reduction Theory→ needs creates drives, motivated behavior attempts to reduce tension and return the organism to homeostasis - Theory cannot explain all kinds of behavior. It implies that people will do little (i.e. have no motivation) when their drives are reduced, but people do many things for which there is no drive that needs to be reduced - Primary and Secondary Drives: - Primary→ unlearned drives, such as hunger, that are based on a physiological state - Secondary→ learned drives, such as ambition, that are not based on a physiological state - Depending on whic ...
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