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Abnormal Psychology at the Cellular Level Study Notes

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Chapter Outline:
- Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Cellular Level
- Research in Abnormal Psychology at the individual Level
- Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Group Level
- Research in Abnormal Psychology at the population level
Quote:
“If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?”
-Albert Einstein
Reliability is “consistency” in measurement
Validity is “truth” in measurement
Science and Scientific Methods
- Science = “to know
- The systematic pursuit of knowledge through observation
- Scientists gather data to test theories
- Theory:
- Set of propositions developed to explain what is observed
- Hypotheses or “educated guess”
- Specific predictions about what will occur if a theory is correct
- Questions Driving a Science of Psychopathology
- What problems cause distress or impair functioning?
- Why do people behave in unusual/atypical ways?
- How can we help people behave in more adaptive ways?
The Objectives of Science:
- Scientific method - a systematic method of conducting scientific research in which theories or
assumptions are examined in the light of evidence
- 1. Formulating a research question
- 2. Framing the research question in the form of a hypothesis
- 3. Testing the hypothesis.
- 4. Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis
- Four major objectives of science:
- Describe, explain, predict, control
Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Cellular Level
- Neuroanatomy:
- Human nervous system
- Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - somatic nervous system that controls
sensation, muscle movement, and the autonomic nervous system (controls
involuntary movements and returns the body to resting levels)
- The Brain contains billions of nerve cells called neurons
- Soma (cell body) dendrites, axon/axon terminals, synapse
Parts of the Brain

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- Brain Stem - controls most of the fundamental biological functions associated with living
- Medulla, pons, and cerebellum - regulate breathing, heartbeat, and motor control***
- Midbrain - coordinates sensory information and movement
- Thalamus - brain’s relay station that carry sensory information to the cortex
- Hypothalamus - relation of bodily functions (homeostasis)\
- Forebrain:
- Limbic system:
- Amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus
- Deals mainly with emotions and impulses
- Basal Ganglia:
- Structures that inhibit movement
- Cerebral cortex:
- Largest part of the forebrain (frontal lobe)
- Reasoning, abstract thought, perception of time, creativity, and other uniquely
human abilities
Neuroanatomy
- Temporal lobe understanding auditory and verbal information, labeling of objects, and verbal
memory
- Parietal lobe integrates sensory information from various sources and may be involved with
visuospatial processing
- Occipital lobe center of visual processing
- Frontal lobe reasoning, impulse control, judgment, language, memory, motor functioning,
problem solving, and sexual and social behavior
- Corpus callosum allows both hemispheres to communicate
Peripheral Nervous System:
- Divided into two systems:
- Sensory-somatic nervous system- voluntary movements of skeletal muscles; cranial and
spinal nerves
- Autonomic nervous system- involuntary
- Sympathetic nervous system actives a state of physical readiness
- Heart and blood pressure increases
- Respiration accelerates, blood sugar is released from the liver
- Adrenalin, noradrenalin are released from the adrenal glands
- FIGHT OR FLIGHT
- Parasympathetic nervous system returns body to resting state
- Heartbeat slows
- Blood pressure reduces
- Respiration levels
- Your body experiences visceral responses typical of periods of rest and
relaxation
- REST AND DIGEST
Neurotransmitters:
- Nervous system communication is both electrical and chemical

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Chapter Outline: - Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Cellular Level - Research in Abnormal Psychology at the individual Level - Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Group Level - Research in Abnormal Psychology at the population level Quote: “If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?” -Albert Einstein Reliability is “consistency” in measurement Validity is “truth” in measurement Science and Scientific Methods - Science = “to know” - The systematic pursuit of knowledge through observation - Scientists gather data to test theories - Theory: - Set of propositions developed to explain what is observed - Hypotheses or “educated guess” - Specific predictions about what will occur if a theory is correct - Questions Driving a Science of Psychopathology - What problems cause distress or impair functioning? - Why do people behave in unusual/atypical ways? - How can we help people behave in more adaptive ways? The Objectives of Science: - Scientific method - a systematic method of conducting scientific research in which theories or assumptions are examined in the light of evidence - 1. Formulating a research question - 2. Framing the research question in the form of a hypothesis - 3. Testing the hypothesis. - 4. Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis - Four major objectives of science: - Describe, explain, predict, control Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Cellular Level - Neuroanatomy: - Human nervous system - Cen ...
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