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Mood Disorders and Mood Thermometer Study Notes

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Psychology

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“Mood” Disorders
- The DSM-5 distinguishes between two categories of mood disorders:
- Depressive disorders and bipolar disorders
- There are three types of episodes:
- Major depressive episode
- Involves symptoms of depression-low mood
- Manic episode
- Involves elated, irritable, or euphoric mood (mood that is extremely positive and
may not necessarily be appropriate to the situation)
- Hypomanic episode
- Involves elated, irritable, or euphoric mood that is less distressing or several than
mania and is different from the person’s nondepressed state. That is, how a
person behaves during a hypomanic episode is different from his or her usual
state
Mood Thermometer (low to high)
Severe depression→
mild/moderate depression→
normal/balanced
hypomania(mild/moderate)→
severe mania
DSM-5
- Bipolar and Related Disorders:
- Bipolar I
- Bipolar II
- Cyclothymic disorder
- Depressive Disorders
- Disruptive is mood dysregulation disorder
- Major depressive disorder
- Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
“Depressive Disorders” (DSM-5)
- Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
- Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder*
- Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder*
- “The common feature of all these disorders is the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood,
accompanied ty somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect an individual capacity to
function.
- Mood Disorders are psychological disorders characterized by prolonged and marked disturbances
in mood that affect how people feel, what they believe and expect, how they think and talk, and
how they interact with others

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Major Depressive Episode (MDE)
- Characterized by severe depression that lasts for at least 2 weeks
- Mood (also called affect), behavior, and cognition are affected by depression
- The above are the three spheres of functioning - ABCs
Depressive Disorders - Affect
- During a major depressive episode, a person may feel unremitting sadness, hopelessness, or
numbness
- Anhedonia: the loss of pleasure, a state in which activities and intellectual pursuits that were once
enjoyable no longer are, or at least are not nearly as enjoyable as they had been
Depressive Disorders - Behavioral and Physical Symptoms
- Psychomotor agitation: an inability to sit still, evidenced by pacing, hand wringing, or rubbing
or pulling the skin, clothes, or other objects
- Psychomotor retardation: slowing of motor functions indicated by slowed bodily movements
and speech (in particular, longer pauses in answering) and lower volume, variety
- Vegetative signs (of depression): psychomotor symptoms as well as changes in appetite, weight,
and sleep
- Hypersomnia: sleeping more hours each day than normal
Depressive Disorders - Cognitive symptoms
- Those in the grip of depression may often feel worthless or guilt-ridden and may evaluate
themselves negatively for no objective reason
- They may feel unwarranted responsibility for negative events to the point of delusions
- May have poor concentration, difficulty thinking, remembering, and making decisions
- Depression is heterogeneous
DSM-5 Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder
- Sad mood OR loss of interest of pleasure (anhedonia)
- Symptoms are present nearly every day, most of the day, for at least two weeks
- PLUS five of the following symptoms
- Sleeping too much or too little
- Psychomotor retardation or agitation
- Poor appetite and weight loss, or increased appetite and weight gain
- Loss of energy
- Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt
- Difficulty concentrating, thinking, or making decisions
- Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Major Depressive Disorder
- Major depressive disorder (MDD) is marked by five or more symptoms of depression lasting
more than two weeks
- Episodic Illness→ single episode lasts two weeks to several months; but it can be recurrent
- People have 1 episode and then symptoms tend to dissipate over time
- More than half of those who have a single depressive episode hava t least one additional episode
- MDD→ Recurrent depression
- Up to 20% of Americans will experience depression in their lifetimes
- There is a high comorbidity (50%) between depression and anxiety disorders
Seasonal Affective Disorder

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“Mood” Disorders - The DSM-5 distinguishes between two categories of mood disorders: - Depressive disorders and bipolar disorders - There are three types of episodes: - Major depressive episode - Involves symptoms of depression-low mood - Manic episode - Involves elated, irritable, or euphoric mood (mood that is extremely positive and may not necessarily be appropriate to the situation) - Hypomanic episode - Involves elated, irritable, or euphoric mood that is less distressing or several than mania and is different from the person’s nondepressed state. That is, how a person behaves during a hypomanic episode is different from his or her usual state Mood Thermometer (low to high) Severe depression→ mild/moderate depression→ normal/balanced→ hypomania(mild/moderate)→ severe mania DSM-5 - Bipolar and Related Disorders: - Bipolar I - Bipolar II - Cyclothymic disorder - Depressive Disorders - Disruptive is mood dysregulation disorder - Major depressive disorder - Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) - Premenstrual dysphoric disorder “Depressive Disorders” (DSM-5) - Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) - Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder* - Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) - Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder* - “The common feature of all these disorders is the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied ty somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect an individual capacity to function. - Mood Disorders are psychological disor ...
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