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Phonological Development Lecture Notes

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Phonological Development
Objectives:
- Describe the transition from prelinguistic to linguistic vocalization
- Describe the cognitive approach to phonological development and why it is currently the most
accepted theory
- Provide evidence that children’s phonological errors are systematic
- Appreciate individual phonological variation
Introduction
- Phonological acquisition:
- Phonology: the sounds of a language, how they are organized to form words
- The child's learning how to pronounce the words of the native language
- ***Internation Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)***
Classifying Consonants
- Place of articulation
- Where is constriction that makes each sound unique?
- Manner of articulation
- How the sound is formed
- Voicing
- Is the sound voiced or voiceless?
- i.e. , are the vocal folds vibrating or not
- You will have problems with consonants with children waaaaaaay more than vowel problems; if
you do have a vowel problem, they may have apraxia
Place of Articulation
- The point at which the upper and lower articulators touch or approach each other
- Labial (bilabial) - closed lips
- /m/, /p/, /b/, /w/
- Labiodental - lower lip resting against the upper teeth
- /f/, /v/
- Dental (interdental) - tongue touching the upper teeth
- /θ/, as in thigh, /ð/ as in this
Manner of Articulation
- Alveolar - tongue near the alveolar ridge
- /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/,
- Palatal - tongue near the hard palate
- /j/ (as in yes)
- /ʒ/ (as in vision)
- /∫/ (as in she)
- /dʒ/ (as in joy)
- /t∫/ (as in cheese)
- Velar - back of the tongue touches the soft palate
- /k, /g/, /ŋ/,
- Glottal - narrowing or closing glottis
- /h/
Manner of Articulation (cont.)

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- Stops (plosives)
- Sounds that stop airflow
- /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/
- Fricatives
- Sounds that constrict airflow
- /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/,
- /θ/, as in thigh,
- /ð/, as in this
- /ʒ/ as in vision
- /h/
- Affricates
- Sounds that begin like stops and end like fricatives
- /dʒ/ as in j, /t∫/ as in ch
- Nasals
- Sounds that allow nasal airflow
- /m/, /n/, /ŋ/
- Liquids
- Sounds that have less constriction than fricatives
- Moderately after airflow
- /l/, /r/
- Glides
- Sounds that have less constriction that fricatives
- Moderately alter airflow /w/, /j/
Production: Prelinguistic Period
- Prelinguistic: birth to 1 year
- Speech play, child practices articulation of sounds and syllables
- Reflexive vocalizations (birth-2 months)
- Cooing and laughter (2-4 months)
- Vocal play (4-6 months
- Canonical babbling (6 months and older)
- Reduplicated
- Variegated
Video: (vocal play)
- Mostly vowel sounds ( maybe a w sound)
- Intonation
- Turn taking
- Joint attention
Video: (babbling)
- Consonant uses in babbling→ emergence of babbling with the consonant vowel repetition
- child/adult laughing turn taking
***Sounds of Babbling:
- m, n (nasals)

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Phonological Development Objectives: - Describe the transition from prelinguistic to linguistic vocalization - Describe the cognitive approach to phonological development and why it is currently the most accepted theory - Provide evidence that children’s phonological errors are systematic - Appreciate individual phonological variation Introduction - Phonological acquisition: - Phonology: the sounds of a language, how they are organized to form words - The child's learning how to pronounce the words of the native language - ***Internation Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)*** Classifying Consonants - Place of articulation - Where is constriction that makes each sound unique? - Manner of articulation - How the sound is formed - Voicing - Is the sound voiced or voiceless? - i.e. , are the vocal folds vibrating or not - You will have problems with consonants with children waaaaaaay more than vowel problems; if you do have a vowel problem, they may have apraxia Place of Articulation - The point at which the upper and lower articulators touch or approach each other - Labial (bilabial) - closed lips - /m/, /p/, /b/, /w/ - Labiodental - lower lip resting against the upper teeth - /f/, /v/ - Dental ...
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I was having a hard time with this subject, and this was a great help.

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