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How Culture is Manifested Study Notes

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Linguistics

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Bilingualism
How Culture is Manifested
- Family structure - Important events in life cycle
- Roles of individual members - Rules of interpersonal interactions
- Food preferences - Religious beliefs
- Definitions of health, illness and disability - Educational practices
Terms to know
- Bilingualism: an individual who is exposed to 2 or more languages at birth (or proficient in both)
- L1 v. L2: primary language vs. second language
- Simultaneous bilingualism: exposed to two languages at same time since birth
- Sequential bilingualism: second language exposed to child around preschool
- ESL, LEP: english as second language, limited english proficient
- English-language learners:
Simultaneous Acquisition
- Debates
- Out of one language emerges 2
- Child develops underlying proficiency in language
- Two separate languages develop
- Child developes separate underlying proficiency in each language
- One parent / one language
- If child does not develop proficiency in L1
- Can result in underdeveloped conceptual foundation necessary for learning in L2
Sequential Acquisition
- L2 introduced at 3 years or later
- Types:
- additive→ L2 language added and mastered
- subtractive→ 1st language lost and replaced by L2
- 1. Begin with single words/short phrases
- 2. Semantic relations produced without morphological markers
- 3. Produce short sentences with morphological markers
- Social relationships
- Use L2 to establish interactions with peers
- Inner-directed v. outer-directed style
- Communication
- Messages sent using linguistic units child understands and produces
- Concentration on correct from
Code Switching
- Switching between 2 languages
- Code switching is a function of the participants
- Effect of context
- Can switch around depending on the situation
Key Questions

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Bilingualism How Culture is Manifested - Family structure - Roles of individual members - Food preferences - Definitions of health, illness and disability - Important events in life cycle Rules of interpersonal interactions Religious beliefs Educational practices Terms to know - Bilingualism: an individual who is exposed to 2 or more languages at birth (or proficient in both) - L1 v. L2: primary language vs. second language - Simultaneous bilingualism: exposed to two languages at same time since birth - Sequential bilingualism: second language exposed to child around preschool - ESL, LEP: e ...
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