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Anatomy Structure of Organisms Study Notes

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Anatomy (and some subcategories)
- Study of the structure of organisms in relation to their parts
- Study of the function of living organisms→ physiology
***Remember anatomical terms: i.e. cranial/caudal, superficial/deep, ventral/dorsal, etc.
Auditory System:
- Peripheral: Outer, middle, inner, auditory nerve
- Central: brainstem, thalamus, cortex
→ Temporal Bone
Outer Ear Anatomy
Function of the Pinna:
- Collect
- Amplify
- Localize
→ Outer Ear Function:
- Concha and EAM
- HRTF
- Structures of the head, torso, and pinna attenuate sound
- Frequency dependent intensity and phase changes
- Transfer function
Middle Ear Anatomy
→ Petrous portion of temporal bone
2-4 mm width
15 mm high
Vol ~2.0 cc
→ tympanic Membrane
Ossicular Ligaments:
- Malleus:
- Superior Mallearhead to teg. tymp
- Lateral Mallear→ neck to lateral wall above TM
- Anterior Mallear→ anterior process to anterior wall
- Incus:
- Posterior Ligament→ short process to fossa incudis
- Stapes:
- Annular ligament→ oval footplate
Middle Ear Muscles:
- Smallest striated muscles in body
- Pennate muscles:
- Many short fibers connected to tendon

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- Tension of all fibers combine to create strong force
- Tendons:
- Very elastic
- Damp vibration of ossicles
- Slow concentration = easy onset
- Bony canal:
- Only tendons within middle ear cavity
- Reduces muscular vibration and sound within middle ear
- Tensor Tympani:
- Cochleariform process: curved lateral terminal
- Inserts in upper manubrium
- Contraction = malleus pulled medially and anteriorly
- Stapedius:
- 6mm
- Pyramidal prominence to neck of stapes
- Contraction = stapes pulled posteriorly
- Function: Protection (10-30dB)
- Piston like at low intensities
- Tilting action at high intensities
- Limited by latency (10-100 ms)
- Mostly low frequency attenuation (below 2k Hz)
Lateral Wall
- Tympanic Membrane→ tympanic portion of the temporal bone
Medial Wall
- Medial:
- Oval window
- promontory→ basal turn of cochlea
- Prominence
- Facial nerve
- Lateral SCC (semicircular canal)
- Round window→ opening into the cochlea
Posterior Wall
- Epitympanic Recess:
- Space above the tympanic membrane
- Tympanic aditus
- Connects to antrum (com w/mastoid air cells)
- Pyramidal eminence
- Behind oval window
- Stapedial muscle tendon
- Chorda Tympani
- Lingual branch of trigeminal nerve

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Anatomy (and some subcategories) - Study of the structure of organisms in relation to their parts - Study of the function of living organisms→ physiology ***Remember anatomical terms: i.e. cranial/caudal, superficial/deep, ventral/dorsal, etc. Auditory System: - Peripheral: Outer, middle, inner, auditory nerve - Central: brainstem, thalamus, cortex → Temporal Bone Outer Ear Anatomy Function of the Pinna: - Collect - Amplify - Localize → Outer Ear Function: - Concha and EAM - HRTF - Structures of the head, torso, and pinna attenuate sound - Frequency dependent intensity and phase changes - Transfer function Middle Ear Anatomy → Petrous portion of temporal bone 2-4 mm width 15 mm high Vol ~2.0 cc → tympanic Membrane Ossicular Ligaments: - Malleus: - Superior Mallear→ head to teg. tymp - Lateral Mallear→ neck to lateral wall above TM - Anterior Mallear→ anterior process to anterior wall Incus: - Posterior Ligament→ short process to fossa incudis Stapes: - Annular ligament→ oval footplate Middle Ear Muscles: - Smallest striated muscles in body - Pennate muscles: - Many short fibers connected to tendon - - - - - Tension of all fibers combine to create strong ...
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Anonymous
Awesome! Perfect study aid.

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