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Loudness and Pitch Study Notes

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Loudness and Pitch
- Psychological attributes of physical measurements
- Quantified by→ direct Scaling or Matching Procedures
Loudness
- Phon scale
- Matching procedure
- Equal loudness contours
- Reference = 1kHz tone
- Sone scale
- Direct ratio scaling (magnitude estimation)
- Reference = 40 phons
Sone Scale (ratio scale):
- Three pairs of tones: reference and comparison
- In which pair is comparison 2x loudness of the reference?
- 1. 5 dB louder
- 2. 8 dB louder
- 3. 10 dB louder (sounded twice as loud as the reference)
- **when it is 10 dB louder, it sounds twice as loud
- 1 sone = 40 phons (40 dB at 1000 Hz)
Steven’s power law
- Sensation will grow as a power function of intensity
Critical Bands
- Band width - the width of a frequency band
- Cochlea divided into critical bands
- Two tones separated into two critical bands
- Causes the loudness to increase
- The critical band width increases with increasing center frequency
Pitch
- Mel Scale
- Adjust frequency of tone until it is 2x of ½ pitch of standard tone
- 1000 Mels = pitch of 1kHz tone @ 40 phons
- Match pitch of comparison and standard tone
Missing Fundamental

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- For sounds that have more than one frequency
- Quality difference without the fundamental, much lower
- But the pitch is the same
Pitch and Duration
Temporal Integration
Adaptive Pitch Perception
Nonlinear tone
- Aural harmonics
- 2f1, 3f1
- Difference tone
- F2-f1
- Cubic difference tone
- 2f1-f2
- Not present in physical stimulus
- Result of non-linear properties of auditory system
Masking
- Interaction of sounds
- How does one sound affect perception of another sound?
- Experiment:
- Tone
- White noise
- Narrow band noise
- Expressed in dB
- signal/noise ratio
Tone on Tone masking
- Signal tone
- Masking tone
- Close in frequency
Review: Tuning Curves (neural)
- Auditory nerve fibers are tuned to certain frequencies
**Three psychophysical tuning curves based on signal tones with frequencies of 300, 1,000 and 3,000 Hz
Masking with Noise
- Audible beats eliminated

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Loudness and Pitch - Psychological attributes of physical measurements - Quantified by→ direct Scaling or Matching Procedures Loudness - Phon scale - Matching procedure - Equal loudness contours - Reference = 1kHz tone - Sone scale - Direct ratio scaling (magnitude estimation) - Reference = 40 phons Sone Scale (ratio scale): - Three pairs of tones: reference and comparison - In which pair is comparison 2x loudness of the reference? - 1. 5 dB louder - 2. 8 dB louder - 3. 10 dB louder (sounded twice as loud as the reference) - **when it is 10 dB louder, it sounds twice as loud - 1 sone = 40 phons (40 dB at 1000 Hz) Steven’s power law - Sensation will grow as a power function of intensity Critical Bands - Band width - the width of a frequency band - Cochlea divided into critical bands - Two tones separated into two critical bands - Causes the loudness to increase - The critical band wid ...
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