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Planes of Orientation Anatomy Study Notes

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Anatomy Notes:
Planes of Orientation:
- Coronal Plane: (Front and Back) divides body into front and
back halves
- Anterior/Posterior - Upper half and lower half cut in the
center (front and back)
- Ventral and dorsal (for animals)
- Transverse Plane: Divides upper and lower half of the body
- Superior/Inferior - Body in half down the middle left and
right
- Sagittal Plane (midsagittal): right and left parts of the body
Terms of Orientation:
- Anatomical Position: body is erect and the palms, arms and
hands are facing forward
- Medial: towards the center
- Superior/Inferior: upper and lower half
- Cranial/Caudal: Towards the head vs. towards the bottom
- Inferior - are used in situations in which gravity is
important
- Abduct/Adduct: open/away or close/toward
- Distal vs. Proximal: farthest point or closest point of attachment
- Peripheral - means away from the center
- Superficial - is confined to the surface (surface layer)
- Deep - to another means an organ is closer the axis of the body (toward the center)
- Internal or External - refer to cavities within or outside the body
- Ventral - pertaining to belly or anterior surface
Anatomy - The structure of an organism
Dissection - Cutting parts of an organism
Physiology - study of living organisms, its parts and their chemical functions
Electrophysiological techniques - measure the electric activity of single or group cells
Cytology - is the discipline that examines the structure and function of cells
Osteology - is the study of structure and function bones
Histology - study of microscopic structures in tissues
Myology - examines form and function of muscles
Arthrology - study of uniting the bones
Angiology - the study of blood vessels and lymphatic system
Neurology - study of diseases of the nervous system
Rostral - is often used to mean toward the head
Appendicular structure = arms and legs
Anatomical position - the body is erect and palms, arms, face forward
Axial skeleton - is the head and trunk with the spinal column being the axis

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Appendicular - skeleton includes the lower and upper limbs
Neuraxis - or the axis of the brain
Embryonic brain - as inferior and superior surfaces
Frontal section - divides body into front and back halves
Ventral - pertaining to belly or anterior surface
Inferior - are used in situations in which gravity is important
A teratogen or teratogenic agent - is anything causing teratogenesis, the development of a severely
malformed fetus. For an agent to be teratogenic, its effect must occur during prenatal development.
- The terms prone (on the belly) and supine (on the back) are also commonly used in
describing the present actual position.
Flexion refers to bending at a joint, usually toward the ventral surface. That is, flexion usually results in
two ventral surfaces coming closer together. Thus, sit-ups would be an act of flexion, because you are
bending at the waist.
Extension- is the opposite of flexion, being the act of pulling two ends farther apart. Again, having
completed a sit-up, you return to the extended condition.
Hyperextension- as in arching your back at the end of your sit-up, is sometimes referred to as
dorsiflexion. (occurs a lot in neck extension with patients)
Use of flexion and extension with reference to feet and toes is a little more complex.
Plantar- refers to the sole of the foot, the flexor surface. If you rise on your toes, you are extending your
foot, but the gesture is reasonably referred to as plantar flexion.
A plantar grasp reflex would be one in which stimulation of the sole of the foot causes the toes of the feet
to “grasp.” The term “dorsiflexion” may be used to denote elevation of the dorsum (upper surface) of the
foot. You may turn the sole of your foot inward, termed inversion.
A foot turned out is in eversion.
Palmar refers to the palm of the hand, that is, the ventral (flexor) surface. The side opposite the palmar
side is the dorsal side. If the hand is rotated so that the palmar surface is directed inferiorly, it is:
pronated (prone) (remembering that in the prone position one is lying on his or her stomach or
ventral surface).
Supination (Supine) refers to rotating the hand so that the palmar surface is directed superiorly.
A palmar grasp reflex is elicited by lightly stimulating the palm of the hand. The response is to flex the
fingers to grasp or instance, when a text mentions an “ipsilateral” course for a nerve tract, you can see
“Contra” (opposite) - prefixes like in “contralateral” (Ipsi and Contra used for sagittal planes)
“ipsi” (same) and lateral” (side) and conclude that the nerve tract is on the same side as something else.
The human body can be defined in terms of specific regions.
- The thorax is the chest region
- the abdomen is the region represented externally as the belly, or anterior abdominal wall.
- Together, these two components make up the trunk or torso.
- The dorsal trunk is the region we commonly refer to as the back.
- The area of the hip bones is known as the pelvis.
- Resting atop the trunk is the head or caput.
**The skull consists of two components: the cranial portion, the part of the skull that houses the brain
and its components, and the facial part, the part of the skull that houses the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity,
and structures related to the upper airway and mastication (chewing).

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Anatomy Notes: Planes of Orientation: - Coronal Plane: (Front and Back) divides body into front and back halves - Anterior/Posterior - Upper half and lower half cut in the center (front and back) - Ventral and dorsal (for animals) - Transverse Plane: Divides upper and lower half of the body - Superior/Inferior - Body in half down the middle left and right - Sagittal Plane (midsagittal): right and left parts of the body Terms of Orientation: - Anatomical Position: body is erect and the palms, arms and hands are facing forward - Medial: towards the center - Superior/Inferior: upper and lower half - Cranial/Caudal: Towards the head vs. towards the bottom - Inferior - are used in situations in which gravity is important - Abduct/Adduct: open/away or close/toward - Distal vs. Proximal: farthest point or closest point of attachment - Peripheral - means away from the center - Superficial - is confined to the surface (surface layer) - Deep - to another means an organ is closer the axis of the body (toward the center) - Internal or External - refer to cavities within or outside the body - Ventral - pertaining to belly or anterior surface Anatomy - The structure of an organism Dissection - Cutting parts of an organism Physiology - study of living organisms, its parts and their chemical functions Electrophysiological techniques - measure the electric activity of single or group cells Cytology - is the discipline that examines the structure and function of cells Osteology - is the study ...
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