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Neuroanatomy and Functional Subdivision Study Notes

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Neuroanatomy (catch up on)
****Structure of a nerve cell
***divisions of the nervous system
***anatomical subdivision (encased in bone)
Peripheral nervous system runs out of the bone
Functional subdivision (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system) pp.584 ch. 11
Somatic:
- Part of the voluntary movement that goes on in the body
- Muscle movement
- Nerves that control motor actions have a certain pathway, in contrast to involuntary nerves
- “Tracts” → a bunch of nerves travelling the same pathway (sending a common
message)
- 2 main nerve tracts:
- Afferent→ considered ascending to the brain; sensory tract
- Efferent→ signal from brain goes to muscles; motor tract
- Pyramidal→ responsible for initiating movement
- extrapyramidal→ responsible for background tone and background support that’s
involved with muscle movement
Embryonic Development:
- Brain develops in layers
- First part that develops is the brain stem
- In utero development, different names are given
- Encephalon: has some reference to a brain (don’t need to know all encephalons)
- In first 4 weeks of development, the brain is beginning to from the different parts
- Brain is labeled differently (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain)
Bulbar→ relates to the functions that come out of the brain stem (includes breathing)
- Speech and swallowing are dependent on sensory and motor systems
Different types of nerves
- Motor nerves
- Sensory nerves
- Dendrites, axons, nucleus, telodendria, etc (know them all)
- Glial Cells
- “nurtures” other nerves
- Astrocyte→ do not do motor or sensory functions; they provide nutrition and feed
the other nerves. Take in oxygen from the arteries and brings it to the nucleus of the
nerves
Layers of the brain:

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- scalp→ epidermal layer of the head; made of skin cells, fat, bloodstream
- skull→ bony protective layer of the brain
- Outside layer of bone is the periosteum
- Cortex is covered by layers of tissue:
- Dura Matter→ provides protection and closes everything off; protects brain
from infection
- Meninges→ dura, arachnoid, and pia; the three layers
- Arachnoid Matter→ serves to provide nutrition; has a bloodstream
- Subdural Space→ space under the dura
- Subarachnoid Space→ space under the arachnoid
- Pia→ delicate; lowest of the three layers
The Brain:
- Grey matter→ the outside layer of the brain
- White matter→ the axon material
- Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) → the fluid flows through the central nervous system; it acts to
get rid of waste and also provides a little bit of a cushion; closed system
- Ventricles→ cavities; open spaces that the spinal fluid will flow through
- Three types:
- Lateral Ventricles (2) right and left; largest ventricles.
- 3rd Ventricles → smallest ventricles
- 4th ventricle→ diamond shaped; located in the space between the brain stem
and the cerebellum
- Posterior vasamany children have cancer in that location
- Tumors→ can restrict the flow of the spinal fluid through the ventricles
Spinal Cord (31 pairs of nerves):
- Dura and pia
- 7 cervical spinal nerves
- Thoracic spinal nerves
- Lumbar
The outside Layer (last layer that develops in Utero)
- Cortex/cerebrum (interchangeable terms)
- Superior part of the cortex:
- Two halves, hemispheres, right and left
- Cortex is folded upon itself
- Sulcus→ like a valley, a groove
- gyrus→ like a hill
- Fissure→ deep sulcus
- Nutrition layer is the outermost layer; glial cells working to give nutrients
- Central Sulcus (rolandic fissure)separates the frontal lobe with the back part of the brain

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Neuroanatomy (catch up on) ****Structure of a nerve cell ***divisions of the nervous system ***anatomical subdivision (encased in bone) Peripheral nervous system runs out of the bone Functional subdivision (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system) pp.584 ch. 11 Somatic: - Part of the voluntary movement that goes on in the body - Muscle movement - Nerves that control motor actions have a certain pathway, in contrast to involuntary nerves - “Tracts” → a bunch of nerves travelling the same pathway (sending a common message) - 2 main nerve tracts: - Afferent→ considered ascending to the brain; sensory tract - Efferent→ signal from brain goes to muscles; motor tract - Pyramidal→ responsible for initiating movement - extrapyramidal→ responsible for background tone and background support that’s involved with muscle movement Embryonic Development: - Brain develops in layers - First part that develops is the brain stem - In utero development, different names are given - Encephalon: has some reference to a brain (don’t need to know all encephalons) - In first 4 weeks of development, the brain is beginning to from the different parts - Brain is labeled differently (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain) Bulbar→ relates to the functions that come out of the brain stem (includes breathing) - Speech and swallowing are dependent on sensory and motor systems Different types of nerves - Motor nerves - Sensory nerves - Dendrites, axons, nucleus, telodendria, etc (kn ...
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