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Respiratory Laryngeal Supralaryngeal Systems Phonetics Lecture Notes

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Articulatory Phonetics: The respiratory, laryngeal and supralaryngeal systems
Articulatory Phonetics:
- We produce speech sounds by:
- Connecting vowels and consonants
- Our articulators in the vocal tract (tongue, lips, jaw, palate, teeth) interact to create
specific phonemes
- Manner and place of articulation interact in speech production:
- example of manner: stopping airstream in /p/
- example of place: /p/ is formed with the lips
- Three systems of speech production→ respiratory, laryngeal, supralaryngeal
The Respiratory System:
- Lungs, rib cage, abdomen and associated muscles
- The combined actions of the lungs, rib cage, abdomen and associated muscles act like a
pump to provide the airflow needed for speech production
- Airstream in the vocal tract is an essential component of speech-sound production
- The role of the system:
- Muscle contractions during inspiration increase the volume of the thoracic cavity
(intercostal muscles and lowering of the diaphragme)
- Relaxing of the muscles allows for sustained exhalation into the larynx and supralaryngeal system
for speech production
- Forceful squeezing of the thoracic cavity can generate strong bursts of air for emphasis or
loudness
The Laryngeal System:
- The larynx (made up of cartilage and muscles is situated on top of the trachea
- The lungs supply enough air to overcome the resistance of the adducted (approximated) vocal
cords
- The vocal cords then vibrate by adducting-abducting (approximating-distancing) and allowing air
to pass in small bursts
- The length of the vocal folds is ¾ inch in males and shorter in females and children
- When we are not talking, the vocal folds remain abducted allowing us to breathe
Phonation
- Rapid open-closing of the vocal folds allows air to escape in small bursts, generating a vocal tone
- The rate of vibration is called the fundamental frequency (Fo)
- High and low pitch are associated with Fo:
- 125 vibrations per second in adult males
- 250 vibrations per second in adult females
- 350 vibrations per second in children
- 500 vibrations per second in an infant’s cry
- Fundamental Frequency (Fo) is expressed in Hertz (Hz)
- Hz is one complete cycle of vibration per second
- Women’s Fo is 250 Hz
- Men’s Fo is 125 Hz
- The Fo changes taking place during conversational speech allow us to modulate intonation
The Supralaryngeal System

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- Pharyngeal-oral-nasal cavities that are above the larynx
- Three major air cavities or resonating chambers:
- Pharyngeal, oral, nasal
- The pharynx is a essentially a muscular tube that divides into the oral and nasal cavities
- Sound energy travels through the pharynx and enters the oral or nasal cavity or both
- The direction of sound is determined by the position of the velum or soft palate
- Compare production of these two words:
- “Fast” vs. “man”
Articulation
- Articulation takes place through movement of the articulators and how they modify the
pharyngeal, oral and nasal cavities
- The tongue changes shape and size
- The jaw only changes position
Velopharynx
- Comprised by the velum and pharyngeal walls
- Operates as a valve to open or close the entrance to the nasal cavity
- Closure of velopharyngeal port: elevation of the velum + inward movements of lateral walls of
the pharynx
- Directs sound energy in order to have
- Oral radiation of sound, or
- Nasal radiation of sound
Jaw or Mandible
- Contributes to movements of the tongue and lower lip
- Hinge Like motion: temporomandibular joint (where jaw inserts into the temporal bone of the
skull)
- Mandibular protrusion and retrusion are possible
Tongue
- Muscular organ with no internal skeleton
- Derives skeletal support from the aw and hyoid bone
- Other muscles attach the tongue to the skull, the palate, the pharynx and epiglottis
- The tongue is versatile and able to achieve complicated movements
- Body of the tongue: bulk of mass
- Position in the mouth
- Vowel articulation is described in relation to tongue body:
- Four vowels in: heat, hoot, hot, hat are described as high-front, high-back, low-
back, and low-front
- Tip of tongue: apex
- Important in articulation: 50% of consonant contacts
- Blade of the tongue: located just behind the tip
- Makes constrictions for / ʃ/ (sh) sound
- shapes the tongue for other speech sounds
- Back of the tongue: dorsum
- contacts roof of the mouth to make velar sounds such as /k/ and /g/

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Articulatory Phonetics: The respiratory, laryngeal and supralaryngeal systems Articulatory Phonetics: - We produce speech sounds by: - Connecting vowels and consonants - Our articulators in the vocal tract (tongue, lips, jaw, palate, teeth) interact to create specific phonemes - Manner and place of articulation interact in speech production: - example of manner: stopping airstream in /p/ - example of place: /p/ is formed with the lips - Three systems of speech production→ respiratory, laryngeal, supralaryngeal The Respiratory System: - Lungs, rib cage, abdomen and associated muscles - The combined actions of the lungs, rib cage, abdomen and associated muscles act like a pump to provide the airflow needed for speech production - Airstream in the vocal tract is an essential component of speech-sound production - The role of the system: - Muscle contractions during inspiration increase th ...
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