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Phonetics Language Accent Dialect Xam Practice

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English

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Exam Practice

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Review Questions
1. What did Labov find about r-less and r-ful in Manhattan. How did he test his ideas?
a. Labov conducted a study at three department stores:
i. Saks (well off), Macy’s (middle class) and Klein’s (working class)
b. Fieldworkers in each store asked counter clerks for directions to the department
they knew were on the “fourth floor”
c. /R/ pronounced more frequently with more socioeconomic status
2. Provide short definitions for phoneme, morpheme, allophone, homophone.
a. Phoneme: distinct units of sound in a specified language
b. Morpheme: the smallest unit of language with meaning; words
c. Allophone: one of two or more variants of the same phoneme
d. Homophone: words with the same pronunciation but different meanings (i.e. new,
knew)
3. Indicate onset, nucleus, coda in one syllable words, eg., bike
a. Onset: “b”
b. Nucleus: “i”
c. Coda: “ke”
4. Count the number of phonemes in words, eg., caught
a. “Caught”--> 3
5. Describe the differences between language, accent dialect
a. Language: language can vary greatly in different places. The words, grammar,
and pronunciations are all different. The phonemes can be different as well.
b. Accent: all about pronunciation; two people may use the same grammar and same
syntax and even the same vocabulary but the pronunciation is different
c. Dialect: there can be differences not only in pronunciation, but also in grammar
and syntax (“he did well” vs. “he done well”)
6. Why do you think that SAE carries social capital?
a. Standard American English carries social because it is used in education
7. Describe the characteristics of respiration for speech purposes.
a. Type of breathing would be inhalation and exhalation. For speech purposes, the
inhalation needs to be quick, taking in enough air efficiently in order to speak.
And the exhalation needs to be long and sustained.
8. What differentiates vowel and consonant production?
a. A vowel is a speech sound made by directing air either in the front, middle, or
back of the mouth, with your tongue raised high, central, or low. Consonants are
sounds made with your mouth mostly closed, and usually rely on using your lips,
teeth, nose, palate, etc.

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Review Questions 1. What did Labov find about r-less and r-ful in Manhattan. How did he test his ideas? a. Labov conducted a study at three department stores: i. Saks (well off), Macy’s (middle class) and Klein’s (working class) b. Fieldworkers in each store asked counter clerks for directions to the department they knew were on the “fourth floor” c. /R/ pronounced more frequently with more socioeconomic status 2. Provide short definitions for phoneme, morpheme, allophone, homophone. a. Phoneme: distinct units of sound in a specified language b. Morpheme: the smallest unit of language ...
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