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Human Communication Study Notes

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What is Typical?
Language, Speech, Voice, and Nonverbal Communication
Human Communication
***difference between language and speech
- What is communication?
- An exchange of ideas
- Involves message transmission
- Interactive
- Why do we communicate?
- Establish and maintain contact
- Gain and give information
- Influence beliefs and actions
- What is language?
- Language is defined as a code whereby ideas about the world are expressed through a
conventional system of arbitrary signals of communication
- The world is made of language video:
- Jason Solo
- Everything is language
- Socially shared tool→ relate to others
- Rule-governed system→ grammar
- Arbitrary code→ with agreed upon words
- Generative process
- Each utterance freshly created
- Present your own ideas in individual ways
- Dynamic scheme→ languages change over time
- Language Acquisition Video
- Are we born knowing things?
- Or is it a blank slate?
- Children don’t know enough to learn a language, yet they do
- LAD→ language acquisition device
- Language is hardwired in our brains before we are even born
- Universal grammar
- Expression of Ideas
- Language expresses what individuals have in mind
- Thoughts we express result from
- Our perceptions (experiences we’ve had)
- Knowledge we have stored in memory
- What is said and how it’s interpreted
- Depends on previous knowledge and present perceptions
- Ideas depend upon experience
- And experience consists of multiple encounters with many different objects

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- The more experience the child has with more objects, the more they’ll
grow. Teaching children how to play and imagine through experiences
- Codes and Rules
- Sounds combine to form words
- Follow rules that specify which sounds can be combined
- Words combine to form sentences
- Make up grammar
- Sentences to combine to form conversations
- Number of sounds and rules are finite (44 phonemes)
- Combinations of possible sentences are infinite
- Linguistic creativity
- Comes from knowing the system of grammatical rules
- Speaker can say and listener can understand new sentences
- Neither one has expressed or heard before
- Building blocks of Language
- Language has three interrelated components:
- Form, content, and use
- Form: structure of language
- Phonology:
- Sound system
- phonemes→ unique sounds (44); vowel or consonant
- Morphology:
- Structure of words
- morpheme→ smallest grammatical unit that has meaning
- Free morpheme: can stand alone as a word (ex: “I”, “me”, “run”)
- Bound morpheme: grammatical tag/marker in english (ex: “ing”)
- Syntax (grammar):
- Arrangement of words in a sentence
- Language rules
- Organizing word order
- Content: meaning of language (semantics)
- Semantics:
- Relates to meaning
- Speakers express ideas about
- Objects and actions
- Relationships (i.e. possession)
- Cause and effect
- Use: the way speakers select different forms that best fit the context
- Pragmatics:
- Words combined into sentences to express complex ideas
- Goals of language
- Choosing between alternative combinations of words and sentences
- Deciding what to say to whom, how to say it, and when to say it
- Understanding Speech Sounds

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What is Typical? Language, Speech, Voice, and Nonverbal Communication Human Communication ***difference between language and speech - What is communication? - An exchange of ideas - Involves message transmission - Interactive - Why do we communicate? - Establish and maintain contact - Gain and give information - Influence beliefs and actions - What is language? - Language is defined as a code whereby ideas about the world are expressed through a conventional system of arbitrary signals of communication - The world is made of language video: - Jason Solo - Everything is language - Socially shared tool→ relate to others - Arbitrary code→ with agreed upon words Generative process - Each utterance freshly created - Present your own ideas in individual ways - Dynamic scheme→ languages change over time - Language Acquisition Video - Are we born knowing things? - Or is it a blank slate? - Children don’t know enough to learn a language, yet they do - LAD→ language acquisition device - Language is hardwired in our brains before we are even born - Universal grammar Expression of Ideas - Language expresses what individuals have in mind - Thoughts we express result from - Our perceptions (experiences we’ve had) - Knowledge we have stored in memory - What is said and how it’s interpreted - Depends on previous knowledge and present perceptions - Ideas depend upon experience - And experience consists of multiple encounters with many different objects - - Rule-governed syste ...
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