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Impaired Communication Language Disorders Study Notes

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Psychology

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Impaired Communication
Definitions:
- Etiology→ cause or origin of a problem
- Congenital→ present at birth
- Acquired→ illness, accident, environmental
What is not a communication disorder?
- Dialects - differences that reflect a particular:
- Region - Social
- Cultural - Ethnic identity
- They are communication differences, not disorders
Language Disorders: Disorders of Form
- Phonology
- Difficulty learning rules for forming words and sentences
- Impacts the way speech sounds function within a language (ASHA, 2017)
- Use certain processes to simplify words
- Frequently unintelligible
- Signs and Symptoms: rule-based error patterns
- Deletion of final consonants
- Reduction of consonant clusters
- Substitution of fricatives / affricates with stops
- Therapy - increasing awareness of correct sound patterns (rules)
- Limited phonological awareness (rhyming, segmenting / blending syllables)
- Morphology and Syntax:
- Younger children - restricted MLU
- School age children - shorter utterances
- Most errors on:
- Verbs (endings, past tense, regular / irregular)
- function words (articles, prepositions)
- Pronouns
- Deficits in morphological awareness
- Syntactic errors: incorrect word order, run-on sentences
- Negatively affect academic achievement
- Increased syntactic complexity→ decreased comprehension
Language Disorders: Disorders of Content
- Semantic Difficulties:
- Limited vocabularies
- Misuse words, word-finding difficulties
- Limited understanding and use of abstract language
- Difficulty requesting clarification, understanding and following spoken directives,
paraphrasing information
- Problems comprehending and using synonyms and antonyms, multiple-meaning words,
figurative language

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Language Disorders: Disorders of Use
- Pragmatic Language Deficits:
- Limited conversational, social, narrative skills
- Deficits in spoken vocabulary
- Difficulty with topic maintenance→ initiating/maintaining conversation
- Inability to comment on a topic or respond to questions
- Interrupting conversational partner
- Difficulty initiating play with peers, expressing ideas, feelings and personal experience
- Uncertainty about what to say and not to say
Speech Sound Disorders: Phonology
- Vowels usually mastered by age 2-3
- Most phonological processes disappear by age 4
- Consonant blends difficult
- Simplification strategies
- Sound Mastery:
- Age 2→ p, h, n, b, k
- Age 3→ m, w, g, f, d
- Age 4→ t, sh, j (y)
- Age 5→ s, v, ng, r, l, ch, z, dzh (“judge”)
- Age 6→ th, zh (“measure”)
- Age 8→ consonant blends and clusters
Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation
- Definition:
- Actual production of speech sounds
- Movement of structures needed for speech
- Different from phonological disorder
- Age Range:
- Multiple speech sound errors past age 4
- Phonological difficulties
- Ages 7-8→ sound system fully in place
Speech Disorders: Fluency
- Definition: smooth, uninterrupted flow of communication
- Developmental Disfluency:
- Speech patterns common for younger children
- Part of language acquisition
- Peak between 2 ½ and 4 years of age
- Characterized by repetition of whole words and phrases
- Occasional interjections
- Stuttering:
- Speech behaviors
- Exceed or are different from the norm
- Accompanied by excessive tension, struggle, fear

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Impaired Communication Definitions: - Etiology→ cause or origin of a problem - Congenital→ present at birth - Acquired→ illness, accident, environmental What is not a communication disorder? - Dialects - differences that reflect a particular: - Region - Social - Cultural - Ethnic identity - They are communication differences, not disorders Language Disorders: Disorders of Form - Phonology - Difficulty learning rules for forming words and sentences - Impacts the way speech sounds function within a language (ASHA, 2017) - Use certain processes to simplify words - Frequently unintelligible - Signs and Symptoms: rule-based error patterns - Deletion of final consonants - Reduction of consonant clusters - Substitution of fricatives / affricates with stops - Therapy - increasing awareness of correct sound patterns (rules) - Limited phonological awareness (rhyming, segmenting / blendin ...
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