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Language Development Study Notes

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Language Development: Pre-Language
- Infants:
- Actively involved in reciprocal process
- Especially responsive to voices and faces
- Infants and Caregivers:
- Caregivers exaggerate to maintain attention
- Infant’s behavior influenced by communication behavior of caregiver
- Still Face Experiment (Video):
- Mother first engages with the baby, the baby reacts and plays with her
- Then the mother does a “still face” and shows no reaction to the baby
- This causes the baby to become stressed, and scared, and cry
- Children are really good at perceiving emotions
Language Development: First Year
- 3-4 months:
- Emergence of rituals/games
- Predictable patterns of behaviors
- Accompanying language
- Form expectations of events
- Increase participation
- 4-6 months:
- Vocalizes excitement and displeasure
- Makes gurgling sounds when playing
- Pays attention to music
- Slowly beginning to respond to their name
- 7-10 months:
- Babbling:
- reduplicated→ same consonant and vowel being repeating (da da, ma ma)
- variegated→ babbling varies, different consonants and vowels
- Jargon: adult-like intonation, no recognizable words
- With gestures, body movements, changes in facial expression
- Intentionality through gestures
- Communicative behaviors: requesting, interacting, attracting attention
- Perceive native language speech sounds and syllables
- Video (linguistic genius of babies):
- Celestial openness of the child’s mind
- Babies are known as “citizens of the world”
- About 8-10 months, babies are starting to become accustomed to sounds of their native language
- Infants are like little scientists: they take statistics to the sounds of words
- American babies were exposed to mandarin for a month, and were able to understand and perceive
the language as well as a chinese baby
- 10-12 months:
- First real words with/without gestures
- Understand simple instructions
- Recognize words for common items
Language Development: Toddler Language

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- 18 months:
- 50 single words→ combine words in predictable ways
- Increase in vocabulary, decrease in babbling
- 24 months (2 years):
- two -word utterances
- Expressive vocabulary 150-300 words (usually more comprehension)
- Larger vocabularies, greater range of grammatical structures
Lexicon: personal dictionary
- Each toddler has his/her own experience and environment
Semantic Relations
- “Agent+Action” → “mommy go”
- “Action+Object” → “eat apple”
- “Agent+Object” → “baby book”
- “Action+Location” → “eat here”
- “Negation+Rejection” → “no milk”
**Silence is just as important as talking to the children
Language Development: Preschool Language
- Recount past events
- Remembers short stories→ increased memory
- memory/recall aided by…
- Increased language skills
- Video: Telling stories
- Form hypotheses about rules of language
- Use hypotheses to…
- Produce more complex language
- Video: overgeneralization in language acquisition
- Form:
- By age 5, 90% of adult syntax developed
- Questions expand:
- What, where
- Who, which, whose
- When, why, how
- Bound morphemes:
- Verb endings -ing, -ed
- Plural, possessive -s
- Content:
- Expressive vocabulary growth
- 2 years: 300 words
- 3 years: 900 words
- 4 years 1800 words
- Receptive vocabulary growth
- Comprehension is double/triple
- Use:

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Language Development: Pre-Language - Infants: - Actively involved in reciprocal process - Especially responsive to voices and faces - Infants and Caregivers: - Caregivers exaggerate to maintain attention - Infant’s behavior influenced by communication behavior of caregiver - Still Face Experiment (Video): - Mother first engages with the baby, the baby reacts and plays with her - Then the mother does a “still face” and shows no reaction to the baby - This causes the baby to become stressed, and scared, and cry - Children are really good at perceiving emotions Language Development: First Year - 3-4 months: - Emergence of rituals/games - Predictable patterns of behaviors - Accompanying language - Form expectations of events - Increase participation - 4-6 months: - Vocalizes excitement and displeasure - Makes gurgling sounds when playing - Pays attention to music - Slowly beginning to respond to their name - 7-10 months: - Babbling: - reduplicated→ same consonant and vowel being repeating (da da, ma ma) - variegated→ babbling varies, different consonants and vowels Jargon: adult-like intonation, no recognizable words - With gestures, body movements, changes in facial express ...
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