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Learning Behavioral Characteristics Study Notes

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Learning Disabilities:
- Definition: A heterogeneous group of disorders that are manifested by significant difficulties in
development and use of listening, speaking, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities.
- Specific Learning Disability
- One of the 13 disability categories under IDEA
- Disorders that adversely affect learning
- NOT primarily the result of other disorders
- Protected by ADA-Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) as a disability that affects
ADLs (Activities of Daily Living)
Learning Behavioral Characteristics (NASET LD Report 2007)
- Disorders of attention
- Reading difficulties
- Poor motor abilities
- Written language difficulties
- Oral language difficulties
- Social skills deficits
- Psychological process deficits
- Quantitative disorders
- Information processing problems
LD: General Deficits
- NASET LD Report - Academic Achievement
- Struggle with various areas of academic performance
- Deficient in reading, mathematics and written expression
- Reading Deficits:
- Inability to distinguish sounds of spoken words (phonemic awareness)
- Failure to understand that letters represent sounds (phonemic awareness)
- Lack of knowledge of the purpose of reading
- Failure to attend to critical aspects of the word, sentence, paragraph
- Written Expression Deficits:
- Overwhelmed by idea of getting started
- Struggle to organize and use mechanics of writing
- Struggle to develop fluency
- Difficulties spelling
- Writing illegible
- Written work is too brief
LD characteristics: Motor and Attention
- Hyperactivity:
- Overactivity:
- Difficulty attending and concentrating
- Attentional difficulties:
- Short attention span
- Inattentiveness
- Distractibility
- Attention and LD

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- Initiate, direct, sustain, shift
- Respond to questions
- Follow directions
- Take notes
- Social aspects→ interrupting/not listening to peers
- ADHD
- If ONLY hyperactivity and attentional difficulties without other characteristics of LD
- Co-occurring deficits: slower/variable response speed, motor, skills, impaired EF
LD Characteristics: Perception
- Perceptual Difficulties
- Interpreting incoming stimuli
- Confuse similar sounds,
- Similar sounding words
- Similar-looking printed letters and words
- Additional Difficulties
- Determining where to focus attention
- Integrating sensory information
- Comprehending printed symbols
- Producing written symbols
LD Characteristics: Memory Types
- Working memory:
- Hold on to pieces of info until they blend into a full concept
- Retain info while engaging in another cognitive activity
- Set of cognitive functions
- Temporary manipulation
- And storage of info
- During thinking, reasoning, remembering
- Short-Term memory:
- Active process of sorting and retaining info for a limited time
- Long-Term memory:
- Info has been stored and is available
LD Characteristics: Memory
- Difficulties and Strategies
- Accessing information (word finding)
- remembering/following multi-step instructions
- Learning to read
- Holding onto sounds
- What words look like
- Ex: strategist for remembering lists of words
LD Characteristics: Social-Emotional
- Social:

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Learning Disabilities: - Definition: A heterogeneous group of disorders that are manifested by significant difficulties in development and use of listening, speaking, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. - Specific Learning Disability - One of the 13 disability categories under IDEA - Disorders that adversely affect learning - NOT primarily the result of other disorders - Protected by ADA-Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) as a disability that affects ADLs (Activities of Daily Living) Learning Behavioral Characteristics (NASET LD Report 2007) - Disorders of attention - Reading difficulties - Poor motor abilities - Written language difficulties - Oral language difficulties - Social skills deficits - Psychological process deficits - Quantitative disorders - Information processing problems LD: General Deficits - NASET LD Report - Academic Achievement - Struggle with various ar ...
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