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Prevalence and Causal Factors Study Notes

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Prevalence and Causal Factors:
- Prevalence:
- Boys 5x more likely to display ASD characteristics
- Most children have IQs above 70→ under is intellectual disability
- Causal Factors:
- Primary causal factors are biological
- (Boys are 5 times more likely to have autism than girls)
- 65% have neurological differences
- 20-30% experience seizures→ affect brain development
Language Characteristics
- Significant delays in language and communication
- Immediate or delayed echolalia→ repeating what you say, can be immediate or delayed
- Range of intentions often limited
- Misinterpret subtleties in conversations
- Suprasegmentals (prosodic) features affected
- Pragmatic prosody - carries social information beyond that conveyed by syntax of
sentence
- Conveys speaker’s intentions
- Video: BBT I have to Want to
- Subtleties; social rules; misinterpreted
Diagnostic Criteria DSM-5 (not on exam)
PART A: persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as
manifested by deficits in
- 1. social-emotional reciprocity
- abnormal social approach
- failure of normal back-and-forth conversation
- reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect
- failure to initiate or respond to social interactions
- 2. nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interactions
- poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication
- abnormalities in eye contact and body language
- understanding and use of gestures total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal
communication
- 3. developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships
- difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts
- difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends
- absence of interest in peers
PART B: restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of
the following
- 1. stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech
- simple motor stereotypes, lining up toys or flipping objects, echolalia, idiosyncratic
phrases
- 2. insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or
nonverbal behavior

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Prevalence and Causal Factors: - Prevalence: - Boys 5x more likely to display ASD characteristics - Most children have IQs above 70→ under is intellectual disability - Causal Factors: - Primary causal factors are biological - (Boys are 5 times more likely to have autism than girls) - 65% have neurological differences - 20-30% experience seizures→ affect brain development Language Characteristics - Significant delays in language and communication - Immediate or delayed echolalia→ repeating what you say, can be immediate or delayed - Range of intentions often limited Misinterpret subtleti ...
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