Access over 20 million homework & study documents
search

The Nervous System Study Notes

Content type

User Generated

Subject

Health & Medical

Type

Other

Rating

Showing Page:
1/4
The Basics:
- Neuron: basic unit of the nervous system (made
up of cell body, axon, dendrites)
- Axon: transmits impulses away from the cell
body to the next neuron
- Synapse: Space between terminals of one neuron
and dendrites of another
- Dendrites: receive impulses from other cells;
transmit them toward cell body
The Nervous System:
- Central Nervous System (CNS)--> brain and spinal cord
- Brain and spinal cord
- Communicates with rest of body through the nerves
- Processes all incoming stimuli and outgoing signals
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- 12 pairs of cranial nerves
- 31 pairs of spinal nerves
- Cranial Nerves:
- Transfer motor and sensory info back/forth between brain and structures in
head/neck
- Motor→ from brain to muscles (leads to body movement
- Sensory→ from body to brain
- Spinal Nerves
- Begins at spinal cord and course out to rest of body
- Send motor info from brain to body’s muscles
- Send sensory info from body back up to brain
The Brain (Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brainstem)
- The Cerebrum:--> responsible for sensory neuron functions and voluntary actions
- Divided into right and left hemispheres
- Contralateral sensory and motor functions
- Each hemisphere has 4 lobes
- Cerebellum (little brain):
- Overview:
- Considered a motor structure
- Damage leads to impairments in motor control and posture
- Motor commands not initiated in cerebellum
- Modifies commands
- Makes movements more accurate
- Functions
- Maintenance of balance and posture
- Compensates for shifts in body position/muscle load
- Coordination of voluntary movements
- Timing and force of different muscle groups
- Fluid movement

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
Showing Page:
2/4
- Motor learning
- Adapts and fine tunes
- Accuracy through trial-and-error
Language Processing and The Brain
- Left hemisphere - linguistic
- Right hemisphere - nonlinguistic and paralinguistic
- Broca’s Area:
- Frontal lobe
- Holds incoming auditory information in working memory while it is processed
- Sends programming information to motor cortex
- Wernicke’s Area:
- Left temporal lobe
- Processes incoming linguistic information
Aphasia
- Expressive Deficits
- Reduced vocabulary - omission/addition of words
- Stereotypic utterances - delayed/reduced speech output OR hyperfluent speech
- Comprehension Deficits
- Spoken or written
- Impaired interpretation of incoming linguistic information
- Severity and Differences
- Severity related to:
- Cause of disorder - location/extent of brain injury
- age of the injury - Client’s age and general health
- Differences in individual brains:
- Different aphasic characteristics
- Lack of similar characteristics when similar areas injured
Types of Aphasia
- Fluent
- Speech and language characteristics:
- Word substitutions, neologisms
- Verbose verbal output
- Typical rate intonation, pauses, stress patterns
- Site of lesion: posterior portion of left hemisphere
- Types:
- Wernicke’s - Anomic
- Conduction - Transcortical Sensory
- Nonfluent:
- Speech and language characteristics:
- Slow, labored speech
- Struggle retrieving words and forming sentences
- Less intonation
- Long pauses
- Less varied stress patterns

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
Showing Page:
3/4

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up

Unformatted Attachment Preview

The Basics: - Neuron: basic unit of the nervous system (made up of cell body, axon, dendrites) - Axon: transmits impulses away from the cell body to the next neuron - Synapse: Space between terminals of one neuron and dendrites of another - Dendrites: receive impulses from other cells; transmit them toward cell body The Nervous System: - Central Nervous System (CNS)--> brain and spinal cord - Brain and spinal cord - Communicates with rest of body through the nerves - Processes all incoming stimuli and outgoing signals - Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - 12 pairs of cranial nerves - 31 pairs of spinal nerves - Cranial Nerves: - Transfer motor and sensory info back/forth between brain and structures in head/neck - Motor→ from brain to muscles (leads to body movement - Sensory→ from body to brain - Spinal Nerves - Begins at spinal cord and course out to rest of body - Send motor info from brain to body’s muscles - Send sensory info from body back up to brain The Brain (Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brainstem) - The Cerebrum:--> responsible for sensory neuron functions and voluntary actions - Divided into right and left hemispheres - Contralateral sensory and motor functions - Each hemis ...
Purchase document to see full attachment
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Anonymous
Just the thing I needed, saved me a lot of time.

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4