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Cerebral Palsy General Characteristics Study Notes

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Cerebral Palsy: General Characteristics
- Heterogeneous group→variations, depends on which area of brain is damaged and to what
extent
- Non-progressive, permanent
- Disorders of movement and postural development
- Oxygen deprivation to brain
- Can occur during fetal development, birth process or shortly after
- Other causes: Hemorrhages in the brain, bacterial/viral infections, Toxins, Accidents
during pregnancy
- Types:
- Motor cortex: executes intentional movements
- Pyramidal tract: voluntary movements
- Extrapyramidal tract: involuntary control
- Cerebellum: sets overall tone and posture
Neuromuscular Classification
- Based on area of brain affected
- Spastic: motor cortex and/or pyramidal tract
- Dyskinetic/Athetoid: extrapyramidal tract, basal ganglia
- Ataxic: Cerebellum
- cortex→ spasticity
- Basal Ganglia→ Athetosis
- Cerebellum→ Ataxic
- Monoplegia→ affects one limb, usually an arm
- hemiplegia→ affects one side of the body (including arm, leg, and trunk)
- Diplegia→ affects symmetrical parts of body (legs or arms)
- Quadriplegia→ affects all four limbs
Spastic CP: Characteristics
- Spasticity: increased resistance to passive stretch (UMN) - Exaggerated stretch reflex
- Hypertonicity - Hyperreflexia
- Jerky, stiff, labored, slow movements
Dyskinetic/Athetoid CP: Characteristics
- Variable, involuntary movements
- Damage to basal ganglia structures (different forms)
- Athetosis: writhing/twisting
- Fluctuations in muscle tone
- Exaggerated when purposeful movement attempted
Ataxic CP: Characteristics
- Uncoordinated movement
- Disturbed balance
- Clumsy and awkward
- Damage to cerebellum→ impairs monitoring of information about balance and
proprioception from the muscles

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Cerebral Palsy: General Characteristics - Heterogeneous group→variations, depends on which area of brain is damaged and to what extent - Non-progressive, permanent Disorders of movement and postural development Oxygen deprivation to brain - Can occur during fetal development, birth process or shortly after - Other causes: Hemorrhages in the brain, bacterial/viral infections, Toxins, Accidents during pregnancy - Types: - Motor cortex: executes intentional movements - Pyramidal tract: voluntary movements - Extrapyramidal tract: involuntary control - Cerebellum: sets overall tone and posture N ...
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