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12 polscience sr sec 2020 21

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Class XI Paper I: Indian Constitution at Work Unit -1: Constitution Sub-Unit: Constitutional Amendments As of 2019, there have been total 103 amendments of the Constitution of India. Unit - 2: Election and Representation Sub-Unit: ‘Electoral Reforms in Indian Politics’ Electoral Reforms in the 21st Century include use of EVM [Electronic Voting Machine], VVPAT [Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail] and NOTA [None of the Above]. Restriction on exit polls, ceiling on election expenditure (Rs.50-70 Lakhs for the Lok Sabha election and Rs. 20-28 Lakhs for the Assembly election) and the use electoral bonds in election funding are some of the major reforms initiated by the Election Commission of India that have sought to bring about revolutionary changes in the electoral process and the voter behaviour in contemporary India. Unit- 5: Judiciary Sub-Unit: ‘Judicial Over reach’ When judiciary assumes the roles and functions of the legislature and executive, thus diluting the concept of separation of powers, it becomes judicial overreach. Unrestrained activism on the part of judiciary often leads to its overreach. We all know that Article 142 and judicial review have been put to many constructive uses but some actions like declaring the NJAC (National Judicial Appointment Commission) unconstitutional as it tried to apply checks on judicial power highlight the need for judicial restraints in the exercise of judicial review. Unit- 6: Federalism Sub-Unit: ‘Quasi Federalis ...
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