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DNA And RNA Discussion

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DNA and RNA 2.6, 2.7
Difference between DNA and RNA
- DNA is deoxyribose nucleic acid and RNA is ribose nucleic acid.
- There are 2 strands of DNA with corresponding base pairs while RNA only have a single
strand.
- In DNA, the bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine; but in RNA the thymine is
replaced by uracil.
Structure of DNA
- Nucleotides linked together by covalent bonds, and different nitrogenous bases are linked
with hydrogen bonds. (AT 2, CG 3) diagram on p108
- The two stands are antiparallel, they are parallel but runs in different directions (3’ 5’ and
5’ 3’, the numbers shows the number for the carbon in the nucleotide.)
- The structure is called double helix.
- The pairing between ATCG is called complementary pairing.
Nucleotides consist of three parts:
- A pentose sugar (5C)
- A phosphate group, PO
4
2-
- A nitrogenous base (ATCG)
Watson and Crick: their model was used to find out the structure of DNA, Double helix.
STUDY THE MODEL AND EXPERIMENT!!!

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DNA replication, transcription and translation 2.7
Semi-conservative replication of DNA
- The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base
pairing
- LEARN THE EXPERIMENT CONDUCTED BY MESELSON AND STAHL TO PROVE THIS
DNA replication
Helicase
A donut shaped enzyme used to break the hydrogen bonds between
the DNA stands.
RNA primase
Building a RNA primer, this indicates where the DNA polymerase
should start building the bases. (There will be a lot of RNA primase in
the lagging strand.)
DNA
polymerase
III
The enzyme that builds complementary DNA on the DNA stand
during DNA replication.
DNA Ligase
This will connect the Okazaki fragments in the lagging strand
DNA
Polymerase I
This will change the bases in RNA primers into DNA bases. (UT)
Post transcription modification
Introns
The part of the replicated RNA which is not needed. It will be
identified by snrnps. And cut off by spliceosome.
Exons
The part of the RNA which is replicated and will be kept in
post-transcription modification in order to be expressed. snRNPs will
be attaching to them and thus determine the
Transcription
DNA gyrase
The enzyme which unwinds the supercoiled DNA from the histone
proteins.
Helicase
A donut shaped enzyme used to break the hydrogen bonds between
the DNA stands.
RNA
polymerase
Building the complementary strands of the RNA for the stands which
needed to be used.
Tranlation
Triplet codon
The three bases on the RNA which every time tRNA will be translating
Anticodon
The codons on the tRNA which complements to the RNA and
represents an amino acid.
tRNA
Consist of anticodons and amino acid, used when a ribosome
receives a RNA, and can therefore can be helping to form a

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DNA and RNA 2.6, 2.7 Difference between DNA and RNA - DNA is deoxyribose nucleic acid and RNA is ribose nucleic acid. - There are 2 strands of DNA with corresponding base pairs while RNA only have a single strand. - In DNA, the bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine; but in RNA the thymine is replaced by uracil. Structure of DNA - Nucleotides linked together by covalent bonds, and different nitrogenous bases are linked with hydrogen bonds. (AT 2, CG 3) diagram on p108 - The two stands are antiparallel, they are parallel but runs in different directions (3’ → 5’ and 5’ → 3’, the numbers shows the number for the carbon in the nucleotide.) - The structure is called double helix. - The pairing between ATCG is called complementary pairing. Nucleotides consist of three parts: - A pentose sugar (5C) - A phosphate group, PO42- A nitrogenous base (ATCG) Watson and Crick: ...
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