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Animal Physiology Discussion

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ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
11.1 ANTIBODY RPDOCUTION AND VACCIANATION.
Any foreign molecule that can trigger an immune response is referred to as an antigen
The most common ones: polysaccharides and proteins, they are found on cell surfaces.
Influenza virus: Hemagglutinin allows the virus to stick to the host cell. Neuraminidase help
with the release of newly formed virus particles
Specific immune response see page 467
Plasma cells secrete antibodies
They are mature B lymphocytes (white blood cells) that produce and secrete large number of
antibodies during an immune response. The cells’ cytoplasm contains an unusually extensive
network of rER, which in this case produces antibodies.
It also produces a lot of the same type of protein meaning that the range of genes expressed is
lower than a typical cell. This explains the staining pattern of the nucleus where dark staining
indicates unexpressed genes.
Activated b cells go through mitosis for many times, these cloned plasma cells produce the same
antibody type, and this is known as clonal selection. Although most of the clone of be cells
become active plasma cells, a smaller number become memory cells, which can remain much
longer after the infection. They remain inactive unless the same pathogen infects the body again
to which re react really fast.
Immunity: either having activated antibodies or memory cells that rapidly produce antibodies.
Role of antibody 1. Opsonization: make pathogen more recognizable to phagocytes
2. neutralization of viruses and bacteria: docking to host cells, others can’t
enter
3. neutralization of toxins: bind to pathogens’ toxins, prevent them from
affecting susceptible cells.
4. activation of complement: bind to membrane and form a pore which allow
water an ions to enter the cell and ultimately cause lysis.

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ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY 11.1 ANTIBODY RPDOCUTION AND VACCIANATION. Any foreign molecule that can trigger an immune response is referred to as an antigen The most common ones: polysaccharides and proteins, they are found on cell surfaces. Influenza virus: Hemagglutinin → allows the virus to stick to the host cell. Neuraminidase → help with the release of newly formed virus particles Specific immune response → see page 467 Plasma cells secrete antibodies They are mature B lymphocytes (white blood cells) that produce and secrete large number of antibodies during an immune response. The cells’ ...
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