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NTC 360 Terminology Week 3




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Running head: WEEK 3 - TERMINOLOGY 1
Week 3 - Terminology
Paul Harield
June 21, 2010
Ricky Chow

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Week 3 - Terminology
To ensure proper transfer of data across a network, certain types of methods and mediums
are useful for transferring data. Numerous technologies exist today and make available an array
of networking solutions. Newer and diverse technologies have replaced older technologies with
the most current and dependable instances whereas other technologies still coexist and offer
businesses with numerous networking alternatives.
Synchronous and Asynchronous
Synchronous transfer systems (occurring at regular intervals) block processes until the
operation completes, negotiates communication constraints at the data link layer, synchronizes
both clocks before transmission begins, and resets both clocks and error logs. Some
disadvantages of this system are the possibility of both sides trying to synchronize at the same
time, and the negotiation process takes longer on low error-rate lines. However, this system is
efficient in instances in which a transmission medium could be deemed as unreliable.
Asynchronous systems require no coordination between transmitters and receivers (InetDaemon,
2009). Asynchronous systems transmit data intermittently instead of in a steady stream, and all
components use the same encoding and decoding methods. Asynchronous transmission is often
called “start-stop transmission” because transmission uses a start bit (at the beginning) and stop
bit (at the end) of each piece of data.
Analog and Digital
An analog signal is a continual variable signal. An analog signal will vary and modulate
overtime based on the intensity of the original signal (ICT Technologies, 2009). A weak analog
signal could greatly corrupt a data transmission or slow its progress. On the other hand, a digital
signal has a limited number of steps along its range. Digital signals transmit in binary format and

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consist of two factors positive (expressed as the number 1) and non-positive (expressed as the
number 0). A weak digital signal still within the specified range for connectivity could work with
no problems.
XON and XOFF (protocols) control data flow correctly between computers and other
devices during data transmissions. The “X” stands for “transmitter” therefore; XON and XOFF
signals turn the transmitter on and off (Midibox, 2006). XOFF is sent from the receiver to the
transmitter as means to cease the transmission. When the transmission resumes, the receiver
notifies the transmitter via an XON command.
Simplex and Duplex
Simplex communication is unidirectional communication or one-way transmissions of data
service. Analog-style television service would be a simplex transfer (Fairhurst, 2001). Duplex
communication means communication (sending and receiving) occurs at the same time and can
be broken down into two subcategories: full duplex and half-duplex. Full duplex communication
is the same thing as duplex because both parties are capable of transmitting and receiving data
simultaneously. Half-duplex communication is bidirectional as signals can only flow in one
direction and never flow back. In half duplex communication, individuals alternate between
sending and receiving data.
Serial and Parallel Transmissions
Serial transmission means data transmission processes bits of data over a single channel.
This one-at-a-time method of transmitting contrasts with parallel transmission as data is sent
over multiple channels simultaneously. Parallel transmission offers asynchronous communication
resulting in faster data transmissions, but more network architecture and physical components

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