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NTC 360 Huffman_Telephone Systems




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Data and Telecommunications 1
Current telephone systems at Huffman Trucking: The need for change
Team D: Paul Broleph II, James Mason, Detricia Coardes, Alexander Rodriguez,
Christopher Reese and Michelle Walker
University of Phoenix
NTC 360
Stephen Omogbehin
February 10, 2007

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Data and Telecommunications 2
Current Telephone Systems of Huffman Trucking
“Modern telecommunication has evolved from primitive fire signals to lightning-fast
global data exchange” (Dean, 2003, p. 7). Huffman Trucking utilizes a mismatched array of
telephone systems. Below is a list of the different locations and the telephone systems
implemented by each site (both the Plant and Office networks are included):
1. Los Angeles – Plant uses VoIP; Office uses PBX w/ no voicemail (POTS)
2. St. Louis – plant uses analog telephones connected to modems operating on a Token-
Ring network; Office uses Avaya Digital Phone System
3. New Jersey – Plant uses PBX telephone (POTS); Office uses PBX that is connected
in a bus topology (drawback is if a phone or other node goes down, the network
cannot communicate)
4. Cleveland - Plant uses Token-Ring connecting all aspects, including PCs and
telephones; Office uses an Avaya Digital Phone System utilizing a 10 Mb Hub.
A major drawback to the current situation of various telephone systems and telephone types is
the disruption of service because of atmospheric interferences, power outages, and central node
point-of-failure (Star networks suffer such outages).
Los Angeles utilizes a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) network to connect all of its
telecommunications equipment, in the Plant environment. The efficiency of having a network
that incorporates both voice and data allows companies to offer improved services for both their
internal and external customers; however, the use of an AOL modem connection compromises
the amount of data and voice calls that may travel over the network. Bottlenecks and other issues
will occur on a VoIP network not containing at least Cat 5 cabling to connect all equipment to the
network. Call centers are a good place for the use of VoIP, because the network can pull up
customer information for a call center analyst just by the telephone number. This increased speed
allows the call center analyst to focus on the caller and route the call according to the needs of
the caller. An organization would have to examine each physical location’s connectivity device
(DSL or ISDN router). Once this is established, the same signaling and prioritization protocols as

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Data and Telecommunications 3
the headquarters’ gateway would have to be established at all sites, otherwise the calls could not
be placed over the network.
Another factor that organizations should examine is the amount of telephone lines needed
for the organization. If the number of telephone lines is not at least 100, then the cost of
converting the organization from traditional phone systems to VoIP would be cost-prohibitive.
Many factors impact an organization when the organization converts from regular
telephone systems to VoIP; these include the Quality of Service (QoS) and improved efficiency.
Today, VoIP is almost comparable to traditional phone systems; however, the sound will never be
as good as traditional phone lines. QoS has steadily improved to where individuals and
companies have embraced the new technology and inherent costs.
Private Branch eXchange: Centralizing each site
The next telephone system employed at two of the Huffman sites is called Private Branch
Exchange, or PBX. According to Dean (2003), “a private branch exchange (PBX) is a switch
owned and operated by a business or other private organization that connects multiple telephone
sets to one or more of the telephone company’s central offices” (p. 208). The positive aspect of
this system is the ability of a company to support its own telecommunications equipment. A
drawback to privately owning the equipment and lines within the company creates overhead that
may be saved by leasing the equipment and potentially switching to Centrex-based phone
systems. In addition, the speed of the overall network will create bottlenecks where users
attempting to place calls cannot; in addition, customers calling during such heavy traffic times
could experience busy signals. This would not be good for business, as a customer might be
more likely to take their business to another company in which he or she can call directly to the
company without the hassle of receiving a busy signal.

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