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Running head: CVI and DVT 1
Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Vein Thrombosis
Name
Institution
Course
Institution
Date
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CVI and DVT 2
During their routine work, the nurse practitioners encounter medical conditions
with similar clinical manifestations. In this context, the nurses are required to possess'
adequate knowledge on the pathophysiology of such conditions to ensure an accurate
diagnosis. Some of the conditions with similar clinical manifestations include chronic
venous insufficiency (CVI), Arterial thrombosis, and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This
paper seeks to provide a comparative analysis between the CVI and DVT focusing on
pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The paper will also explore the difference
between DVT and arterial thrombosis as well as the implication of gender on the diagnosis
and treatment of CVI and DVT. The will conclude by presenting the mind concept maps
for DVT and CVI.
Pathophysiology
CVI is a cardiovascular disorder which manifests as altered venous return
secondary to the distension of peripheral veins or valve damage (Huether & McCance,
2012). The condition occurs over a period and is caused by conditions that cause venous
hypertension, for instance, pelvic tumors, trauma on the veins, and thrombi among others
(2). The condition can affect veins across the body including the superficial and the deep
veins. Venous stasis leads to the formation of venous varicose, edema, leathery skin, and
tenderness which are classical presentations of CVI (Huether & McCance, 2012).
DVT, on the other hand, refers to the condition characterized by the formation of
the thrombus (blood clot) in the wall of the veins. The term is limited to the deep veins of
the lower extremities (Meetoo, 2010). The etiology of DVT is associated with three main
factors namely venous endothelial damage, abnormal clotting of blood, and venous stasis
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CVI and DVT 3
(Meetoo, 2010). These factors lead precipitate platelets aggregation leading to the
formation of a thrombus which in turn blocks the venous return leading to the formation of
edema, and tenderness.
DVT should not be confused with arterial thrombosis which is a similar condition
limited to the arteries (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). Unlike DVT which is caused by venous
stasis, coagulation disorders, and venous damage; artery injury and atherosclerosis are the
main causes of arterial thrombosis (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). The complications of
arterial thrombosis occur on the target organ and may include gangrene whereas the
complication of DVT may affect organs far away from the body since the thrombus can be
dislodged to the heart or the brain. DVT is located mainly in the lower extremities while
the arterial thrombosis can be located in any artery (McPhee & Hammer, 2010).
Implication of gender
Research has demonstrated that females are more prone to DVT and CVI compared
to men (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). The high rates among the females have been
associated with various factors such as the use of hormonal contraceptive methods,
pregnancy, hormonal replacement therapies, and menopause among others (McPhee &
Hammer, 2010). The higher rates of DVT and CVI implies that during diagnosis especially
the history taking phase the nurse practitioner should probe for high-risk histories such as
the use of hormonal therapies, pregnancies, and menopause. However, the diagnosis and
the treatment of the conditions follows a standard process irrespective of gender.
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CVI and DVT 4
Diagnosis and Treatment
The diagnosis of both conditions includes history taking, physical examination and
specific diagnostic tests. History taking identifies the patient demographics including age
and gender as well as the chief complaints and history of presenting illness. Physical
examination captures the symptoms of CVI and DVT which includes pain, edema,
distended veins, changes in skin color, and tenderness (Meetoo, 2010). However, the
physical examination is not definitive and cannot be used to make an accurate diagnosis of
any of the conditions. The definitive tests are done using Doppler studies which involve
the use of ultrasonography. The Doppler studies can be categorized into two main groups
namely Doppler flow which identifies the blood clots with easy and Doppler reflux studies
which identify the altered venous return (Al-Thani et al., 2016).
The treatment of DVT involves the use of anticoagulants such as heparin and
warfarin coupled with compression therapies which include compression stocking and
pneumatic devices (Al-Thani et al., 2016). The treatment can also involve the use of
surgery procedures to remove the clots. CVI, on the other hand, is mainly treated using
conservative methods such as elevation, ambulation, massage and compression stocking.
Severe forms of CVI are treated using diuretics as well as surgical procedures such as vein
transplants and sclerotherapy (Al-Thani et al., 2016).
Conclusion
The clinical manifestations of DVT and CVI are very similar and may include
edema, pain, and altered venous return. However, with adequate knowledge on the
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CVI and DVT 5
pathophysiology and significant factors such as gender, the nurse practitioner can be able
to make an accurate diagnosis as well as the treatment regimen.
Mind concept map: CVI
Pathophysiology
Damage to peripheral veins
valve damage
altered venous return
Clinical Presentation
Varicose vein
Discoloration of skin
Edema
Pain
Epidemiology
Common in
women than men
Risk factors
include the use of
hormonal
contraceptives,
menopause, and
pregnancy
Diagnosis
History taking
Physical examination
Doppler examination
Treatment
Compression therapy
Diuretics
Surgery
Chronic Venous
Insufficiency
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CVI and DVT 6
Mind Concept Map: DVT
Pathophysiology
venous endothelial damage
abnormal clotting of blood
venous stasis
thrombus
Clinical Presentation
Edema
Pain
Complications: stroke
Epidemiology
Common in
women than men
Risk factors
include the use of
hormonal
contraceptives,
menopause, and
pregnancy
Diagnosis
History taking
Physical examination
Doppler examination
Treatment
Anticoagulation
Compression therapy
Surgery
Deep Venous
Thrombosis
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CVI and DVT 7
References
Al-Thani, H., El-Menyar, A., Asim, M., & Kiliyanni, A. S. (2016). Clinical Presentation,
Management, and Outcomes of Deep Vein Thrombosis Based on Doppler
Ultrasonography Examination. Angiology, 67(6), 587-595. doi:
10.1177/0003319715604265
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate
custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2010). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to
clinicalmedicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-
Hill Medical.
Meetoo, D. (2010). In too deep: Understanding, detecting and managing DVT. British
Journal of Nursing, 19(16), 1021-1027. http://dx.doi.org/105100024

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: CVI and DVT 1 Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Vein Thrombosis Name Institution Course Institution Date CVI and DVT 2 During their routine work, the nurse practitioners encounter medical conditions with similar clinical manifestations. In this context, the nurses are required to possess' adequate knowledge on the pathophysiology of such conditions to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Some of the conditions with similar clinical manifestations include chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), Arterial thrombosis, and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This paper seeks to provide a comparative analysis between the CVI and DVT focusing on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The paper will also explore the difference between DVT and arterial thrombosis as well as the implication of gender on the diagnosis and treatment of CVI and DVT. The will conclude by presenting the mind concept maps for DVT and CVI. Pathophysiology CVI is a cardiovascular disorder which manifests as altered venous return secondary to the distension of peripheral veins or valve damage (Huether & McCance, 2012). The condition occurs over a period and is caused by conditions that cause venous hypertension, for instance, pelvic tumors, trauma on the veins, and thrombi among others (2). The condition can affect veins across the body including the superficial and the deep veins. Venous stasis leads to the formation of venous varicose, edema, leathery skin, and tenderness which are classical presentations of CVI (Huether & McCance, 2012). DVT, on the other hand, refers to the condition characterized by the formation of the thrombus (blood clot) in the wall of the veins. The term is limited to the deep veins of the lower extremities (Meetoo, 2010). The etiology of DVT is associated with three main factors namely venous endothelial damage, abnormal clotting of blood, and venous stasis CVI and DVT 3 (Meetoo, 2010). These factors lead precipitate platelets aggregation leading to the formation of a thrombus which in turn blocks the venous return leading to the formation of edema, and tenderness. DVT should not be confused with arterial thrombosis which is a similar condition limited to the arteries (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). Unlike DVT which is caused by venous stasis, coagulation disorders, and venous damage; artery injury and atherosclerosis are the main causes of arterial thrombosis (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). The complications of arterial thrombosis occur on the target organ and may include gangrene whereas the complication of DVT may affect organs far away from the body since the thrombus can be dislodged to the heart or the brain. DVT is located mainly in the lower extremities while the arterial thrombosis can be located in any artery (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). Implication of gender Research has demonstrated that females are more prone to DVT and CVI compared to men (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). The high rates among the females have been associated with various factors such as the use of hormonal contraceptive methods, pregnancy, hormonal replacement therapies, and menopause among others (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). The higher rates of DVT and CVI implies that during diagnosis especially the history taking phase the nurse practitioner should probe for high-risk histories such as the use of hormonal therapies, pregnancies, and menopause. However, the diagnosis and the treatment of the conditions follows a standard process irrespective of gender. CVI and DVT 4 Diagnosis and Treatment The diagnosis of both conditions includes history taking, physical examination and specific diagnostic tests. History taking identifies the patient demographics including age and gender as well as the chief complaints and history of presenting illness. Physical examination captures the symptoms of CVI and DVT which includes pain, edema, distended veins, changes in skin color, and tenderness (Meetoo, 2010). However, the physical examination is not definitive and cannot be used to make an accurate diagnosis of any of the conditions. The definitive tests are done using Doppler studies which involve the use of ultrasonography. The Doppler studies can be categorized into two main groups namely Doppler flow which identifies the blood clots with easy and Doppler reflux studies which identify the altered venous return (Al-Thani et al., 2016). The treatment of DVT involves the use of anticoagulants such as heparin and warfarin coupled with compression therapies which include compression stocking and pneumatic devices (Al-Thani et al., 2016). The treatment can also involve the use of surgery procedures to remove the clots. CVI, on the other hand, is mainly treated using conservative methods such as elevation, ambulation, massage and compression stocking. Severe forms of CVI are treated using diuretics as well as surgical procedures such as vein transplants and sclerotherapy (Al-Thani et al., 2016). Conclusion The clinical manifestations of DVT and CVI are very similar and may include edema, pain, and altered venous return. However, with adequate knowledge on the CVI and DVT 5 pathophysiology and significant factors such as gender, the nurse practitioner can be able to make an accurate diagnosis as well as the treatment regimen. Mind concept map: CVI Pathophysiology • • • Damage to peripheral veins valve damage altered venous return • • • • • Varicose vein Discoloration of skin Edema Pain Chronic Venous Insufficiency Epidemiology • Clinical Presentation Common in women than men Risk factors include the use of hormonal contraceptives, menopause, and pregnancy Diagnosis Treatment • • • Compression therapy Diuretics Surgery • • • History taking Physical examination Doppler examination CVI and DVT 6 Mind Concept Map: DVT Pathophysiology • • venous endothelial damage abnormal clotting of blood venous stasis thrombus • • Clinical Presentation Edema Pain Complications: stroke Deep Venous Thrombosis Epidemiology • • Common in women than men Risk factors include the use of hormonal contraceptives, menopause, and pregnancy Diagnosis Treatment • • • Anticoagulation Compression therapy Surgery • • • History taking Physical examination Doppler examination CVI and DVT 7 References Al-Thani, H., El-Menyar, A., Asim, M., & Kiliyanni, A. S. (2016). Clinical Presentation, Management, and Outcomes of Deep Vein Thrombosis Based on Doppler Ultrasonography Examination. Angiology, 67(6), 587-595. doi: 10.1177/0003319715604265 Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2010). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinicalmedicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGrawHill Medical. Meetoo, D. (2010). In too deep: Understanding, detecting and managing DVT. British Journal of Nursing, 19(16), 1021-1027. http://dx.doi.org/105100024 Name: Description: ...
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