Access over 20 million homework & study documents

Healthcare malignant tumors of liver sonogarphycaly diagnosis

Content type
User Generated
Rating
Showing Page:
1/5
MALIGNANT TUMORS OF LIVER:
1. Metastases
2. Hepatocellular Carcinoma
3. Lymphoma
Metastases:
The lungs and liver are the most frequent sites of distant metastatic
disease, and metastases are the most common malignant liver lesion in
North America. Up to 50% of patient dying of cancer have liver
metastases. Metastases are multiple in up to 98% of cases and usually
involve both lobes d the liver. Signs and symptoms of liver disease are
absent in approximately one half of patients with liver metastases. In
addition, liver function tests are unreliable in detecting liver metastases.
Therefore imaging plays a critical role in patients with suspected liver
metastases.
The majority of metastatic lesions have a target appearance with an
echogenic or isoechoic center and a hypoechoic halo. Thin halos represent
dilated peritumoral sinu soids or compressed liver parenchyma, whereas
thick halos represent proliferating tumor. After metastases, the most
common cause of target lesions is HCC. Lymphoma can also produce
target lesions. Abscesses, adenomas, and FNH may appear as target
lesions but these lesions are not nearly as common as the malignant
lesions mentioned earlier. Hemangioma is a very common lesion but only
rarely pro duces a target appearance. Based on this discussion, it is
important to realize that target lesions are much more likely to be
malignant than benign.
In addition to target lesions, metastases can have a variety of sonographic
appearances, as illustrated in. Although it is not possible to predict the
primary tumor based on the sonographic appearance of the metastases,
some trends are useful. Hyperechoic metastases tend to arise from the
gastrointestinal (GI) tract, most commonly from the colon.

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
Showing Page:
2/5
Neuroendocrine tumors are another relatively common cause of
hyperechoic metastases. The colon is also the most common source for
calcified metastases, although mucinous primary tumors of the ovary,
breast, and stomach can also calcify). Cystic hepatic metastases are
unusual but do occur. They generally have thick walls, thick septations,
or obvious solid components, and therefore do not mimic simple hepatic
cysts. Cystic spaces in metastases may result from a cystic primary tumor
(ovary) or from necrosis, as seen with squamous cell carcinomas,
sarcomas, and large lesions from any primary tumors.
In patients with widespread hepatic metastases, the liver may appear
diffusely heterogeneous and it may be difficult to identify individual
lesions. High-resolution views focused on the superficial aspect of the
liver increase the chance of identifying individual lesions. CT and MRI
are also helpful in confirming suspected diffuse metastases and in further
evaluating heterogeneous echotexture of unknown etiology. This pattern
is particularly typical for breast cancer. The differential diagnosis for this
appearance includes cirrhosis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lymphoma, fatty
infiltration, and diffuse HCC.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma:
HCC is the most common primary malignancy of the liver. It is the fifth
most common malignancy worldwide, and the third most common cause
of cancer-related death. It is some times referred to as hepatoma.
Approximately 90% of HCC occurs in cirrhotic livers. Chronic hepatitis
C and B, alcohol abuse, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are the most
common causes. Other predisposing factors are hemochromatosis,
Wilson's disease, and type I glycogen storage disease. Despite many
improvements in treatment, prognosis is very poor with overall 5-year
survival rates of only 20%.

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
Showing Page:
3/5

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
End of Preview - Want to read all 5 pages?
Access Now
Unformatted Attachment Preview
MALIGNANT TUMORS OF LIVER: 1. Metastases 2. Hepatocellular Carcinoma 3. Lymphoma Metastases: The lungs and liver are the most frequent sites of distant metastatic disease, and metastases are the most common malignant liver lesion in North America. Up to 50% of patient dying of cancer have liver metastases. Metastases are multiple in up to 98% of cases and usually involve both lobes d the liver. Signs and symptoms of liver disease are absent in approximately one half of patients with liver metastases. In addition, liver function tests are unreliable in detecting liver metastases. Therefore imaging plays a critical role in patients with suspected liver metastases. The majority of metastatic lesions have a target appearance with an echogenic or isoechoic center and a hypoechoic halo. Thin halos represent dilated peritumoral sinu soids or compressed liver parenchyma, whereas thick halos represent proliferating tumor. After metastases, the most common cause of target lesions is HCC. Lymphoma can also produce target lesions. Abscesses, adenomas, and FNH may appear as target lesions but these lesions are not nearly as common as the malignant lesions mentioned earlier. Hemangioma is a very common lesion but only rarely pro duces a target appearance. Based on this discussion, it is important to realize that target lesions are much more likely to be malignant than benign. In addition to target lesions, metastases can have a variety of sonographic appearances, as illustrated in. Althou ...
Purchase document to see full attachment
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Anonymous
Great content here. Definitely a returning customer.

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4