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NTC 362 Week 2 DQs

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Week 2 DQ 1
Answer by Day 3
Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP). What is VoIP and how is it different from the Plain Old
Telephone Service (POTS)? What are some issues an organization (not individuals) should
analyze when evaluating the move from a traditional phone system to VoIP? Explain the impact
(positive and negative) on an organization when moving to and using VoIP.
NOTE: this is covered outside the assigned reading for this week.
Chapter 11, Business Data Networks and Telecommunications
Chapter 9, Telecommunications Essentials
Additional material on the topic can be found in the library of on the internet.
Answer:
What is VoIP and how is it different from the Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS)?
Voice over IP or VoIP is a communication system that is used in conjuction with the internet.
VoIP is a service that is provided to cut down on cost and allows for more flexibility of line that
are being used. Instead of assigning just a phone number you are able to assign and IP to the
phone as well. The phone number can then be assigned to an individual that is working with a
company and all they would have to do is sign in or out of a station and they will have the same
voice mail and number.
The Plain Old Telephone Service or POTS is the old fashion way of doing things. The
connection is a the basic phone setup and is the standard telephone service that is used in most
homes. In addition the standard POTS service includes the following:
bi-directional, or duplex, voice path with limited frequency range of 300-3400Hz
dial tone and ringing signals
subscriber dialing
operator services, such as directory assistance and long distance and conference calling
assistance
What are some issues an organization (not individuals) should analyze when evaluating the
move from a traditional phone system to VoIP? Explain the impact (positive and negative)
on an organization when moving to and using VoIP.
Some issues that an organization needs to think about is the overhead and total cost of a new
VoIP network. There is more cost to running a system like this because of the equipment and

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special phones that are needed. The other thing that needs to be taken into consideration is the
technical knowledge it take to set up and use. It can sometimes become frustrating to new users.
Some advantages the VoIP system are as follows:
The Flexibility of use- As stated above any one person can use the same phone number
were ever they may be because the system uses the internet to make calls.
Inexpensive Service- Though the initial buy in my cost a little bit more then the POTS.
The service cost are cheaper in terms of the rates that are applied to a regular phone bill
and ever cell phone services. This can be a huge cost efficient savings to many
companies.
Bundled packages- The VoIP service usually comes with Caller ID, Call Forwarding,
Three way calling and voicemail. This is something that is not offered with the regular
POTS service because these are upgrades for the service being provided.
Their are some disadvantages to using VoIP because the fact that this service is offered and is
based on the user internet connection this could limit the quality of service. This means that if the
bandwidth is being fully used an extra cost would have to be taken to ensure that the internet
connection would not go down or bottle neck during peak hours of usage. The other down fall is
that VoIP requires power unlike the POTS system. If there is no power this means that the
internet connection is more than likely down. To prevent service outages a UPS battery backup
system would have to be in place to prevent and outages from taking place.
The bottom line is that with new technology comes new challenges to overcome. The POTS
system has been around for over 100 years and it too had its problems, but they were solved. The
thing that a company must look into is what saves to the most money over time. Once the
question has been answered then they should make the correct decision.
Week 2 DQ 2
Respond by Day 5
Write a 200- to 300-word response to the following:
What is the nature of digital signals, binary, and other multilevel signal types?
What are the advantages of digital signals over analog signals? Cover noise suppression in your
explanation.

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Answer:
Analog-to-digital conversion is an electronic process in which a continuously variable (analog)
signal is changed, without altering its essential content, into a multi-level (digital) signal. The
input to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) consists of a voltage that varies among a
theoretically infinite number of values. Examples are sound waves, the waveforms representing
human speech, and the signals from a conventional television camera. The output of the ADC, in
contrast, has defined levels or states. The number of states is almost always a power of two --
that is, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc. The simplest digital signals have only two states, and are called binary.
All whole numbers can be represented in binary form as strings of ones and zeros. Digital signals
propagate more efficiently than analog signals, largely because digital impulses, which are well-
defined and orderly, are easier for electronic circuits to distinguish from noise, which is chaotic.
This is the chief advantage of digital modes in communications. Computers "talk" and "think" in
terms of binary digital data; while a microprocessor can analyze analog data, it must be
converted into digital form for the computer to make sense of it.
A typical telephone modem makes use of an ADC to convert the incoming audio from a twisted-
pair line into signals the computer can understand. In a digital signal processing system, an ADC
is required if the signal input is analog. The following are advantages of digital signals over
analog signals
An analog recording is one where a property or characteristic of a physical recording medium is
made to vary in a manner analogous to the variations in air pressure of the original sound.
Generally, the air pressure variations are first converted (by a transducer such as a microphone)
into an electrical analog signal in which either the instantaneous voltage or current is directly
proportional to the instantaneous air pressure (or is a function of the pressure). The variations of
the electrical signal in turn are converted to variations in the recording medium by a recording
machine such as a tape recorder or record cutter—the variable property of the medium
is modulated by the signal. Examples of properties that are modified are the magnetization
of magnetic tape or the deviation (or displacement) of the groove of a gramophone disc from a
smooth, flat spiral track.
A digital recording is produced by converting the physical properties of the original sound into a
sequence of numbers, which can then be stored and read back for reproduction. Normally, the
sound is transduced (as by a microphone) to an analog signal in the same way as for analog
recording, and then the analog signal is digitized, or converted to a digital signal, through
an analog-to-digital converter and then recorded onto a digital storage medium such as a compact
disc or hard disk.

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