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NTC 362 Week 3 Learning Team Assignment- Protocol Paper.




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Fundamentals of Networking 1
Fundamentals of Networking

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Fundamentals of Networking 2
Fundamentals of Networking
Network communication is vital to any organization that is trying to conduct any type of
business, but a lot of people fail to realize all the vital components that must work together in
order to make this work. This is why it is important to know the OSI model is constructed and
how data moves up and down this stack. However, there are other components that are just as
important such as, TCP/IP, circuit and packet switching, and the major protocols that circuit and
packet switching use. These processes are truly important because without them the way we
communicate today would not exist. With that said let’s take a look and see how this information
travels by means of the OSI model.
Describe the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol model.
Open System Interconnection or OSI remains the universally accredited outline for
principles in communicating midst diverse systems manufactured by dissimilar vendors. The
objective of OSI is to create an uncluttered working situation, which every manufacturers PC,
linked toward every network so data can remain shared with any additional computer on or off
the network.
Most dominate protocols used currently need a configuration within them established on
the OSI. The, “OSI is a model and not an actively used protocol with very few OSI-based
products on the market today however they have a specific structure” (Stergiou, Leeson &
Green, 2004). The first physical layer is the ability to send data over lines; examples would be T-
carrier and SONET. The second would be the data link layer through processes and protocols in
place designed for the operation of the communication lines. It can as well find and correct
communication errors, examples would be frame relay, point to point. ATM also runs in layers
one and two also. The third layer is the network layer that regulates how the data transfers

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Fundamentals of Networking 3
among computers. It also uses routing among individual networks. Layer four is the, “transport
layer that outlines the rules for information exchange and manages end to end delivery of
information within and between networks, including error recovery, and flow control” (Stergiou,
Leeson & Green, 2004). TCP is an example of the transport protocol that encompasses layers on
its own. Layer four protocols ensure end to end integrity of the data in session. Layer five is the
session layer using dialog administration, managing the process of the communication ability
with the transport protocol. Layer six is the presentation layer delivering clear communication
amenities by screening modifications of wavering data designs, like character codes between
different systems. Text compression and decompression exemplify the presentation layer
functions. Layer seven is known as the application layer and holds tasks for specific application
requests “Some examples that take place at the layer seven layer are, file transfer, remote file
access, and virtual terminals. TCP/IP protocols such as FTP, SMTP, SNMP, and TELNET”
(Stergiou, Leeson & Green, 2004).
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Now that we have covered the OSI model we can take a look at the TCP/IP protocol. The
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or otherwise known as TCP/IP plays a vital part
in computer communications over the web and with each other. There are two parts to the
TCP/IP, which are Transmission Control Protocol the TCP and Internet Protocol the IP. The
Following is the construction of a TCP/IP packet:

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