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The hierarchical philosophy is that the functions of the operating s

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The hierarchical philosophy is that the functions of the
operating system should be separated according to their
complexity, their characteristic time scale, and their level
of abstraction. Following this approach leads to an
organization of the operating system into a series of
layers. Each layer performs a related subset of the
functions required of the operating system. It relies on the
next lower layer to perform more primitive functions and to
conceal the details of those functions. It provides services
to the next higher layer. Ideally, the layers should be
defined so that changes in one layer do not require
changes in other layers. Thus we have decomposed one
problem into a number of more manageable subproblems.
In general, lower layers deal with a far shorter time scale.
Some parts of the OS must interact directly with the
computer hardware, where events can have a time scale
as brief as a few billionths of a second. At the other end of
the spectrum, parts of the operating system communicate
with the user, who issues commands at a much more
leisurely pace, perhaps one every few seconds. The use of
a set of layers conforms nicely to this environment.
As class discuss schemes for improving the efficiency of
the I/O.
Solution
The following are a few schemes that may be implemeted
to improve the efficiency of the I/O:

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The hierarchical philosophy is that the functions of the operating system should be separated according to their complexity, their characteristic time scale, and their level of abstraction. Following this approach leads to an organization of the operating system into a series of layers. Each layer performs a related subset of the functions required of the operating system. It relies on the next lower layer to perform more primitive functions and to conceal the details of those functions. It provid es services to the next higher layer. Ideally, the layers should be defined so that changes in on ...
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