# 8) User A sends 10111101 to user B User B receives 11011010 Comput

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8) User A sends 10111101 to user B. User B receives
11011010. Compute the bit-error rate?
Noise-Ratio (SNR) .
2) TCP protocols run only in what?
Solution
8)
The bit error rate (BER) is the number of bit errors per unit
time. The bit error ratio (also BER) is the number of bit
errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during
a studied time interval. BER is a unitless performance
measure, often expressed as a percentage.
User A : 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
User B : 1 1 0 1 1 010
Therefore, No. of bits changed = 5
Total transferred bits =8
BER= 5/8=0.625=62.5%
----------------------------
9) SNR
--------------------------------
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compares the level of the

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Wi-FI signal to the level of background noise. Sources of
noise can include microwave ovens, cordless phones,
Bluetooth devices, wireless video cameras, wireless game
controllers, fluorescent lights, and more.
> 40dB SNR = Excellent signal (5 bars); always
associated; lightening fast.
25dB to 40dB SNR = Very good signal (3 - 4 bars); always
associated; very fast.
15dB to 25dB SNR = Low signal (2 bars); always
associated; usually fast.
10dB - 15dB SNR = very low signal (1 bar); mostly
associated; mostly slow.
5dB to 10dB SNR = no signal; not associated; no go.
On considering the above given ranges the minimum value
must be 20dB as SNR for defining range boundary , so that
there is a constant association with good performance
-----------------------
TCP
------------------------------------
The TCP protocol runs only in the end systems and not in
the intermediate network elements (routers and bridges),

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8) User A sends 10111101 to user B. User B receives 11011010. Compute the bit-error rate? 9) What is desirable in wireless links about Signal -toNoise-Ratio (SNR) . 2) TCP protocols run only in what? Solution 8) The bit error rate (BER) is the number of bit errors per unit time. The bit error ratio (also BER) is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. BER is a unitless performance measure, often expressed as a percentage. User A : 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 User B : 1 1 0 1 1 010 Therefore, No. of bits changed = 5 Total transferred bits =8 BER= 5/8=0.625=62.5% ---------------------------9) SNR -------------------------------The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compares the level of th e Wi-FI signal to the level of background noise. Sources of noise can include microwave ovens, cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, wireless video cameras ...
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