# A) Senders and receivers have agreed to use even parity Acting as a

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a) Senders and receivers have agreed to use even parity.
Acting as a sender, add a parity bit to the following bit
sequences. 010 01100 011010 01100100 b) Senders and
receivers have agreed to use odd parity. Are the following
received bit sequences correct? 1001 010101 0110110
011101101 c) An ASCII transmission scheme uses DLE
STX control characters to start a frame and DLE ETX to
end a frame. Using character stuffing (hint: only DLE
needs to be escaped), what are the ASCII sequences to
transmit the following data streams? ABCD AB DLE STX
CD ABC ETX DLE D ETX d) A bit-oriented protocol uses
the flag bits 01111110 to start and end the frame. What
will be the transmitted frames for the following streams of
bits? 01010111000 01111110
00001110111110000111111111111110000
Solution
a)
Given sender and reciever agreed to even parity .
at sender :
For an even parity at sender side the sender must first
exaamine the number of ones in the bit sequence, if the
sequence has odd number of 1s then inorder to make them
even we have to add the even parity as 1 otherwise if the
no. of bits in the sequence are even then we add the even

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parity bit as 0.
Given bit sequences are: 010 01100 011010 01100100
1) the first sequence is 010, this sequence consists of
odd nuber(1) of 1s so we add the even parity bit as 1. So,
the new bit sequence is 0101.
2) the second sequence is 01100, this sequence
consistes of the even number(2) of 1s so we add the even
parity bit as 0. the new sequence is 011000.
3) The third sequence is 011010, this consists of odd
number(3) of 1s, so we have to add the parity bit 1 inorder
to make them even. the new bit sequence is 0110101.
4) The forth sequence is 01100100, consists of odd
number (3) of 1s so we add the even parity bit as 1.The
new sequence is 011001001.
b) Given the sender and the reciever agreed to use odd
parity
At reciever side: Given sequences are: 1001 010101
0110110 011101101
In the case of odd parity, the situation is reversed. For a
given set of bits, if the count of bits with a value of 1 is
even, the parity bit value is set to 1 making the total count
of 1\'s in the whole set(including the parity bit) an odd
number. If the count of bits with a value of 1 is odd, the
count is already odd so the parity bit\'s value remains 0.
1) the first sequence 1001,recieved at reciever consists

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a) Senders and receivers have agreed to use even parity. Acting as a sender, add a parity bit to the following bit sequences. 010 01100 011010 01100100 b) Senders and receivers have agreed to use odd parity. Are the following received bit sequences correct? 1001 010101 0110110 011101101 c) An ASCII transmission scheme uses DLE STX control characters to start a frame and DLE ETX to end a frame. Using character stuffing (hint: only DLE needs to be escaped), what are the ASCII sequences to transmit the following data streams? ABCD AB DLE STX CD ABC ETX DLE D ETX d) A bit-oriented protocol uses the flag bits 01111110 to start and end the frame. What will be the transmitted frames for the following streams of bits? 01010111000 01111110 00001110111110000111111111111110000 Solution a) Given sender and reciever agreed to even parity . at sender : For an even parity at sender side the sender must first exaamine the number of ones in the bit sequence, if the sequence has odd number of 1s then inorder to make them even we have to add the even parity as 1 otherwise if the no. of bits in the sequence are even then we add the even parity bit as 0. Given bit sequences are: 010 01100 011010 01100100 1) the first sequence is 010, this sequence consists of odd nuber(1) of 1s so we add the even parity bit as 1. So, the new bit sequence is 0101. 2) the second sequence is 01100, this sequence consistes of the even number(2) of 1s so we add the even parity bit as 0. the new sequence is 011 ...
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