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Statistics 250

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STATS 250
Section 1.1
Statistics: numbers measured for some purpose; collection of procedures
and principles for gathering data and analyzing data to help people make
decisions when faced w/ uncertainty
Section 1.2
dotplot: plot in which each dot represents response of individual
five-number summary: lowest/highest values; cutoff points for ¼, ½, and ¾
of data
median: value in middle when numbers are put in order
lower quartile: median of lower halve of data
upper quartile: median of upper halve of data
risk: estimation that bad outcome will occur in future based on past
base rate (baseline risk): rate or risk at beginning time period or under
specific conditions
population: collection of all individuals about which information is desired
random sample: subset derived from population so that each individual has
specified probability of being part of sample
sample survey: investigative gathering of opinion or information from each
sample individual
margin of error: number added to/subtracted from sample information to
produce 95% certain interval
self-selected sample (volunteer sample) => ask anyone who wishes to
respond to do so
ex. magazines, television stations, Internet websites, etc.
observational study: study in which participants are observed and measured
variable: characteristic that differs from one individual to next
confounding variable: variable that is not main concern of study, but may be
partially responsible

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randomized experiment: study in which treatments are randomly assigned
to participants
treatment: specific regimen or procedure assigned to participants by
experimenter
random assignment => each participant has specified probability of being
assigned to each treatment
placebo: pill or treatment designed to look like active treatment, but w/ no
active ingredients
statistically significant => relationship/difference large enough to be unlikely
to have occurred in sample w/o relationship/difference in population
Section 1.3
procedure for discovering knowledge
1) ask right question(s)
2) collect useful data
3) summarize and analyze data
4) make decisions and generalizations
5) turn data and decisions into new knowledge

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Section 1.1 Statistics: numbers measured for some purpose; collection of procedures and principles for gathering data and analyzing data to help people make decisions when faced w/ uncertainty Section 1.2 dotplot: plot in which each dot represents response of individual five-number summary: lowest/highest values; cutoff points for ¼, ½, and ¾ of data median: value in middle when numbers are put in order lower quartile: median of lower halve of data upper quartile: median of upper halve of data risk: estimation that bad outcome will occur in future based on past base rate (baseline risk): rate or risk at beginning time period or under specific conditions population: collection of all individuals about which information is desired random sample: subset derived from population so that each individual has specified probability of being part of sample sample survey: investigative gathering of opinion or information from each sample individual margin of error: number added to/subtracted from sample information to produce 95% certain interval self-selected sample (volunteer sample) => ask anyone who wishes to respond to do so ex. magazines, television stations, Internet websites, etc. observational study: study in which participants are observed and measured variable: characteristic that differs from one individual to next confounding variable: variable that is not main concern of study, but may be partially responsible randomized experiment: study in which treatments ...
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