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Part One
•Dene positive and negative reinforcement, and provide an example of each.
•Dene positive and negative punishment, and provide an example of each.
Part Two
Pick 2 of these questions, and provide further discussion on them:
•Based on your experiences, how would you deal with a deant child?
•Which do you think is more e&ective for the child: reinforcement or
punishment?
•What are the limitations of operant conditioning (reward and punishment)?

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Answers:-
Part One
Positive reinforcement is the presentation of a desired stimulus to reward behavior and increase
the likelihood that such behavior will reoccur. An example of positive reinforcement is when a
parent takes a child out for ice cream after he/she has completed a chore list for the week.
Negave reinforcement is the removal of an undesired smulus as a reward for some behavior. An
example of negave reinforcement is when a parent “ungrounds” a child from video game me aer she
submits some missing homework assignments.
Posive punishment is the inicon of some unpleasant smulus or consequence in response to
undesired behavior. For example, scolding or spanking a de"ant child would be using posive punishment.
Negave punishment is the removal of a desired smulus in response to undesired behavior. For example,
denying a child his dessert as a penalty for refusing to eat some green vegetables would be using negave
reinforcement.
Part Two
I think reinforcement, parcularly posive reinforcement, is more e%ecve for the child.
Posive reinforcement entails a sort of contract between adult and child of mutual respect regarding
behavior expectaon. Posive reinforcement supplies a desired smulus in return for a desired behavior. It
impresses on the child that such behavior is being recognized and appreciated. Reinforcement can be
considered more proacve, while punishment is more reacve. Punishment can produce a strained, or
adversarial relaonship between the child and caregiver. Conversely, reinforcement can help develop
posive feelings of respect and self-esteem.
Operant condioning has limitaons in that it might cause the child to become too dependent on the
noon of rewards or punishments as the basis for his/her desirable behavior as opposed to focusing on
intrinsic bene"ts of such behavior. Every instance of desired behavior should not be expected to be
rewarded. Schedules of reinforcement are oen used, such as interval schedules that require a minimum
amount of me to pass between reinforcements, or rao schedules that require certain number of posive
behaviors to occur before there is reinforcement. Ideally, the child is supposed to get into a habit of
connuing the good behavior, even aer the posive reinforcement stops. Unless children are helped to
understand how their posive behavior is bene"ng they themselves, then aer the reinforcement stops,
the child may likely stop the good behavior as well.

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Part One-Define positive and negative reinforcement, and provide an example of each.-Define positive and negative punishment, and provide an example of each.Part TwoPick 2 of these questions, and provide further discussion on them:-Based on your experiences, how would you deal with a defiant child?-Which do you think is more effective for the child: reinforcement or punishment?-What are the limitations of operant conditioning (reward and punishment)?Answers:-Part OnePositive reinforcement is the presentation of a desired stimulus to reward behavior and increase ...
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Anonymous
Awesome! Perfect study aid.

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