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1. Compare and contrast different mode of authority in Judaism and how they manifest in
Rabbinic Judaism and in the Hasidic community.
There are some different styles of Judaism like Orthodox Judaism which holds both Oral and
Written Torah. It was revealed to Moses and its laws are binding and unchanging. It includes
Modern Orthodox Judaism and Haredi Judaism.
Another approach is Conservative Judaism which is also known as Masorti outside the US as
well as Canada. It is basically featured by traditional Jewish laws and customs. This Judaism
holds that the Torah is a holy document which is written by Prophets by the inspiration of God
and reflects his wills but Conservative Judaism rejects Orthodox position that this holy document
was dictated by God to Moses. Re constructionist Judaism is also a form of Judaism which does
not hold the Jewish law, but it involves observance. But unlike reforms, this Judaism emphasizes
on the community role in deciding what observance to follow. Humanistic Judaism is an
approach of Judaism which is a small non-theistic movement and it centered in North America as
well as in Israel. This Judaism emphasizes Jewish culture and history as the sources of Jewish
Judaism is a monotheistic religion which have certain strong bases and foundations pillared up
with its own foundational text which is “Torah”, sometimes also called as Tanakh or Hebrew
Bible and Mishnah and the Talmud. Judaism is mainly considered by religious Jews in order to
express the conventional relationship of God with the Israelis’ children. In contrast to the
Judaism, Hasidic philosophy is the teachings and interpretations of Judaism expressed by the
modern Hasidic movement. It is the structural term for the teaching of modern Chassidic masters
expressed in its range from Torah to Kabbalah. Rabbinic Judaism which sometimes also called as
Rabbinism is also a mainstream of Judaism. After the codification of Talmud, it gained
Some modes of authority in Judaism
Comparisons and Contrasts

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predominance within the Jewish Diaspora in between 2
to 6
century. It developed along the
development of the oral law and Talmud in order to control the Jewish scripture interpretations as
well as to encourage the practice of Judaism in absence of Temple sacrifices. Hasidic
community was actually founded by Yisroel ben Eliezer. It was created and developed at the
time when European Jews inward to Talmud study, when many Jewish thought that in spite of
having emphasis on spiritual development and peace Jewish life became too academics. This was
started from Europe and then wave of Jewish immigration in the 1880s carried it to the United
States and then gradually Hasidic Judaism became the way of life of many Jews in Europe as
well as in US. This movement claims nothing new by itself but it was a refreshment of original
Judaism in way to refresh the real and old Judaism. Later on this issue was taken serious and
eventually two groups were appeared, Hasidic and non- Hasidic Jews. The main reasons for the
rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the diminishing the enthusiasm of Hasidic worship. Gradually
the differences between the Hasidim and their opponents became diminished and both groups are
now considered part of Haredi Judaism.
Just similar to Hasidic community, after the codification of the Talmud, the Rabbinic Judaism is
also a mainstream form of Judaism. It is distinguished by the beliefs that the written Torah (Law)
cannot be interpreted correctly without the reference to the Oral Torah.
2. How did the Catholic Orthodox Church argue for clerical authority against Gnostic and
other heretical movements in early Christianity? What were the later Protestant critiques
of these claims?
The Catholic Orthodox Church argues for clerical authority against Gnostic by continuing to
teach the truth. Gnosticism predates Christianity for few centuries and teaches that physical
world is bad while spirituality is good. It also argued that humans are fascinated in between.
Deliverance comes from Knowledge and knowledge comes from Gnosis. There are many aspects
which go against the teachings of Christianity which includes that the physical world is good and
God said so in Genesus. Humans are physical and spiritual beings and both natures are good.
Salvation comes from grace and does not on merit and God wants all to be saved.
Catholic Orthodox Church Arguments

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The Orthodox Church always fought for the favor of orthodoxy as well as for the authority of the
Pope in order to be the successor of St. Peter to establish the truth. In history there are varying
degrees of power which resist or punish heretics.
In the older churches, ecumenical council or council of bishops determined heresies, for
example, the First Council of Nicaea. The church was having a little power to actually punish
heretics in the previous years, and the punishment could be the spiritual punishment. One of the
worst forms of possible punishment was an excommunication. In this punishment, it separated
the individual from the body of Christ as well as from his Church and prevented him from
Heresy to a Protestant means the concept of telling lies about God. It is not a central part of
heresy to telling lies about God but it’s a matter of opposing authorities. Protestants mostly chose
the difficult way of action to try to guide the middle course that first, Humans tell the truth about
God that which is God’s respect. Second, being tolerant and loving of those see things in a
different way and allow ears to hear people so that they might learn from them. Protestants
observe deviation against original Christianity is the respect of the saints, and in particular the
cults of the Virgin Mary.
3. How did understanding of “AVODAH” change over the course of Jewish history? What
were some of the contextual reasons for the Changes?
In modern context, AVODAH refers to the business- type’s activities which mean agricultural
work while more traditionally it means serving God. In traditional sense, AVODAH was applied
to sacrifices offered in Temple in Jerusalem. AVODAH was made in order to give a chance to
people to integrate Judaism and social activism in ways that nourished their ideals and provide
them power and facility to be strong and endure activist. AVODAH was founded by the spectrum
of Jewish community. It was made by the community which includes some religious, non-
Protestant Critiques

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