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1. Which of the following statements about American workers is NOT true?
Samuel Gompers of the AFL succeeded as a union leader because he advocated radical changes in
the structure of American capitalism, rather than merely seeking better wages and working
conditions.
During the later nineteenth century, labor unions provoked alarm among social and political leaders
because of a wave of strikes.
Although the Carnegie "rags to riches" experience hardly matched the experience of most workers,
opportunity to rise economicallywith higher wages and fewer hourswas enjoyed most by white
males.
To achieve high productivity, managers tended to treat workers as impersonal cogs in the industrial
machinery.
2.
Which is a true statement about forms of business organization?

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The trust was a device to enlarge corporate power by jointly controlling and managing once-
competing firms through a central board of directors.
Horizontal integration refers to a corporation controlling the whole stream of production, from raw
materials through industrial production to retail sales.
The holding company refers to an informal cooperative arrangement between two businesses,
devised because it was illegal for corporations to own other corporations.
The corporation was a new organizational technique not used in America before the Civil War.
3. A true social Darwinist like William Graham Sumner would accept
labor union strikes to raise wages.
business bankruptcies.
combinations (either of businesses or workers) to reduce competition.
protective tariffs to help business

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4.
For ordinary workers to affect the industrial order, they had to develop their own kind of integrated
system; specifically, they had to pursue
fraternal cooperation.
Socialism.
unionization.
individual stock ownership.
5. In the late nineteenth century, employers always had the advantage over workers in labor disputes.
Which of the following was a tactic (or tactics) used by employers that gave them this advantage?

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