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MGT 350 Final Exam 4

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2) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of
mechanisms used to “store” critical thinking for future programmed decisions include
A. a regression analysis
B. a Stakeholder Analysis
C. a Pareto Chart
D. pre-opening checklist
E. a SWOT Analysis
3) When facing a critical decision, a manager should use critical thinking in order to ______
uncertainty
A. eliminate
B. increase
C. reduce
D. randomize
4) Kathy is a manager deciding between two applicants for a position reporting to her. One
applicant for the position is a close personal friend of Kathy’s. Because Kathy is concerned
that self serving bias may influence her to incorrectly see her friend as the best candidate,
she should
A. allow someone else to make the decision.
B. eliminate her bias by not allowing her friend to apply
C. ignore her bias and be strictly objective
D. any of the above would be an equally valid choice from a critical thinking perspective
E. seek input from others before making the decision.
5) Jane has a term paper due, a sick child who needs her attention, and a major project due
at work. To save time, she decides to submit a paper for school that is less than her best, but
will earn a passing grade. The best description of Jane’s approach is
A. creativity
B. analyzing
C. satisficing
D. optimizing
6) Despite all the measures followed, successful decisions are not always guaranteed so it is
important to
A. develop contingency plans
B. only allow the most senior leaders to influence decisions
C. use logical thinking to guarantee a correct outcome
D. accept that some decisions will not work and move on to other issues
E. develop appropriate measurements for the impacts of decisions
7) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to
A. increase the use of the logical thinking style

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B. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping
C. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities
D. increase the homogeneity of his or her team
E. consult with internal stakeholders in other departments
8) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to
A. assign the role of devil’s advocate for meetings
B. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping
C. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities
D. increase the homogeneity of his or her team
E. increase the use of the logical thinking style
9) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Disadvantages of
group decision making include
A. a decision that accounts for the interests of diverse stakeholders
B. all of the above are disadvantages of group decision making
C. a more autocratic environment
D. a process that is more time consuming
E. increased security of confidential information
10) During problem formulation, the decision maker must account for the interests of
diverse stakeholders. An important step toward this outcome is the establishment of
A. measurements for the decision
B. decision Implementation Processes
C. criteria, goals, and objectives
D. timelines and resource allocations
E. contingency plans
11) The outcome of the process of framing the problem includes
A. a timeline for decision implementation
B. an assessment of resources needed to execute a decision
C. a list of criteria, goals, and objectives for a decision
D. a list of potential alternative courses of action
E. the measurements one will use to evaluate the decision
12) Conflict is a force of influence upon decision making, and may hamper decision
implementation if not accounted for in the problem formulation and identification process.
Conflict may stem from such factors as

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A. inspirational leadership
B. routine programmed decisions
C. groupthink
D. personal attributes
E. a lack of a devil’s advocate
13) What is the most comprehensive definition of a problem?
A. A positive situation that requires action in order to fully leverage an opportunity.
B. A declining economy resulting in reduced revenues
C. A negative situation that requires action to mitigate damage
D. Gap between current situation and some future desired state
E. An increase in the cost of doing business.
14) This thinking style may be used to frame a problem in general terms through the use of
sample data.
A. Deductive logical style
B. Creative thinking style
C. Inductive logical style
D. Persuasive thinking style
E.
All of the above thinking styles frame a problem in general terms through the use of sample
data.
15) A form of critical thinking is fair-minded persuasive thinking. When engaging in
problem formulation and identification with a group, the fair minded persuader would
A. emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason
B. acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position creates for the audience
C. avoid all affective appeals
D. communicate only that information which supports the desired decision
E. emphasize data and reason over affective appeals
16) While this decision style offers an opportunity for stakeholder input, it most lessens
accountability for decision making.
A. Democratic
B. Consensus
C. Autocratic
D. Collaborative/participative
E. Leader decides
17) An appropriate profit relative to funds invested would be a primary consideration of
this stakeholder group.
A. Employees
B. Customers
C. Owners

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