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MGT 350 Final Exam 6




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1) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of mechanisms
used to “store” critical thinking for future programmed decisions include
A. a regression analysis
B. a Pareto Chart
C. a SWOT Analysis
D. a Stakeholder Analysis
E. a troubleshooting decision tree
2) Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decision making.
According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response when an unstructured problem
is presented?
A. Frame the problem
B. Measure the impact of a decision
C. Make the decision
D. Frame alternatives
E. Implement a decision
3) Decision opportunities arise when problems or opportunities are recognized through critical
thinking. Which of the following components may be a reason that managers ignore problems?
A. The manager prefers risk over certainty.
B. The managers sense of urgency toward problems precludes action.
C. The manager is exercising intellectual courage in the face of resistance to problem solving.
D. Some businesses exist in a problem free environment.
E. A lack of intellectual empathy makes it difficult to recognize stakeholder considerations.
4) A critical thinker balances effectiveness and efficiency when deciding how to approach a
problem. Depending upon the situation, a proper approach may be to do nothing, to use a ready-
made solution, or to design a custom made solution. Choosing a ready-made solution, rather than
designing a custom made solution, implies
A. time savings
B. greater specificity to the circumstances of the current problem
C. gathering diverse perspectives
D. more time spent evaluating alternatives
E. increased costs
5) Jane has a term paper due, a sick child who needs her attention, and a major project due at
work. To save time, she decides to submit a paper for school that is less than her best, but will
earn a passing grade. The best description of Jane’s approach is

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A. satisficing
B. creativity
C. optimizing
D. analyzing
6) Despite all the measures followed, successful decisions are not always guaranteed so it is
important to
A. develop contingency plans
B. accept that some decisions will not work and move on to other issues
C. use logical thinking to guarantee a correct outcome
D. only allow the most senior leaders to influence decisions
E. develop appropriate measurements for the impacts of decisions
7) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Advantages of this include
A. a decision that accounts for the interests of multiple stakeholders
B. the leader maintains tighter control over decisions
C. greater security over confidential information
D. decisions that are more narrowly focused
E. quicker decisions for urgent problems
8) The completeness of our thought is limited by selective perception of relevant inputs one
example is
A. considering the ways in which the current situation differs from substantially similar past
B. using brainstorming to gather a number of ideas
C. evaluating which stakeholders are most directly affected by a decision
D. using starbursting to ensure that we are considering all relevant questions
E. overreliance on past and current experience
9) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to
A. assign the role of devil’s advocate for meetings
B. increase the use of the logical thinking style
C. increase the homogeneity of his or her team
D. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping
E. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities
10) During problem formulation, the decision maker must account for the interests of diverse
stakeholders. An important step toward this outcome is the establishment of

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A. measurements for the decision
B. timelines and resource allocations
C. criteria, goals, and objectives
D. contingency plans
E. decision Implementation Processes
11) Considerations when framing a problem include
A. framing alternative courses of action
B. developing contingency plans
C. identifying causes of the problem
D. measuring the impacts of a decision
E. identification of stakeholders affected by the problem
12) The outcome of the process of framing the problem includes
A. a timeline for decision implementation
B. a list of potential alternative courses of action
C. a list of criteria, goals, and objectives for a decision
D. the measurements one will use to evaluate the decision
E. an assessment of resources needed to execute a decision
13) A form of critical thinking is fair-minded persuasive thinking. When engaging in problem
formulation and identification with a group, the fair minded persuader would
A. emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason
B. communicate only that information which supports the desired decision
C. avoid all affective appeals
D. emphasize data and reason over affective appeals
E. acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position creates for the audience
14) Survey data, combined with this thinking style, can be used to identify a problem through
statistical analysis.
A. Scientific
B. Deductive logical
C. Creative
D. Inductive logical
15) This thinking style may be used to frame a problem in general terms through the use of
sample data.

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