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MGT 350 Final Exam 7

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1) Decision opportunities arise when problems or opportunities are recognized through critical
thinking. Which of the following components may be a reason that managers ignore problems?
A. The managers sense of urgency toward problems precludes action.
B. The manager is exercising intellectual courage in the face of resistance to problem solving.
C. A lack of intellectual empathy makes it difficult to recognize stakeholder
considerations.
D. Some businesses exist in a problem free environment.
E. The manager prefers risk over certainty.
2) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of mechanisms
used to “store” critical thinking for future programmed decisions include
A. a Pareto Chart
B. a SWOT Analysis
C. a troubleshooting decision tree
D. a Stakeholder Analysis
E. a regression analysis
3) Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decision making.
According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response when an unstructured problem
is presented?
A. Implement a decision
B. Make the decision
C. Frame the problem
D. Frame alternatives
E. Measure the impact of a decision

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4) A critical thinker balances effectiveness and efficiency when deciding how to approach a
problem. Depending upon the situation, a proper approach may be to do nothing, to use a ready-
made solution, or to design a custom made solution. Choosing a ready-made solution, rather than
designing a custom made solution, implies
A. increased costs
B. gathering diverse perspectives
C. time savings
D. more time spent evaluating alternatives
E. greater specificity to the circumstances of the current problem
5) Despite all the measures followed, successful decisions are not always guaranteed so it is
important to
A. develop appropriate measurements for the impacts of decisions
B. use logical thinking to guarantee a correct outcome
C. develop contingency plans
D. only allow the most senior leaders to influence decisions
E. accept that some decisions will not work and move on to other issues
6) Kathy is a manager deciding between two applicants for a position reporting to her. One
applicant for the position is a close personal friend of Kathy’s. Because Kathy is concerned that
self serving bias may influence her to incorrectly see her friend as the best candidate, she should
A. eliminate her bias by not allowing her friend to apply
B. seek input from others before making the decision.
C. allow someone else to make the decision.
D. any of the above would be an equally valid choice from a critical thinking perspective
E. ignore her bias and be strictly objective

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7) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Disadvantages of group
decision making include
A. increased security of confidential information
B. a more autocratic environment
C. a decision that accounts for the interests of diverse stakeholders
D. all of the above are disadvantages of group decision making
E. a process that is more time consuming
8) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to
A. consult with internal stakeholders in other departments
B. apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities
C. increase the use of the logical thinking style
D. rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping
E. increase the homogeneity of his or her team
9) The completeness of our thought is limited by selective perception of relevant inputs one
example is
A. using starbursting to ensure that we are considering all relevant questions
B. evaluating which stakeholders are most directly affected by a decision
C. considering the ways in which the current situation differs from substantially similar past
experiences
D. using brainstorming to gather a number of ideas
E. overreliance on past and current experience
10) Considerations when framing a problem include
A. measuring the impacts of a decision

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